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Table 2 Univariable Cox regression

From: Fragment size and level of cell-free DNA provide prognostic information in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

Parameter Progression-free survival Overall survival
Hazard ratio (95% CI) p-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) p-value
cfDNA fragment size B1 (continuous) 0.913 (0.865–0.962) 0.001 0.897 (0.848–0.949) < 0.001
cfDNA fragment size B1 (> 167 bp vs ≤ 167 bp) 0.409 (0.225–0.744) 0.003 0.394 (0.220–706) 0.002
cfDNA level B1 (continuous) 1.002 (1.001–1.003) 0.001 1.002 (1.001–1.003) 0.001
cfDNA level B1 (> median vs ≤ median) 3.773 (2.009–7.084) < 0.001 2.418 (1.350–4.329) 0.003
Combination cfDNA fragment size and cfDNA levels   < 0.001   0.002
 0 markersa Reference   Reference  
 1 marker 2.825 (1.275–6.258)   2.032 (0.943–4.379)  
 2 markers 4.476 (2.139–9.364)   3.326 (1.695–6.526)  
CA 19-9 (< 37U/mL vs ≥ 37U/mL) 0.665 (0.319–1.385) 0.276 0.854 (0.412–1.771) 0.672
cfDNA fragment size B2 (continuous) 0.935 (0.860–1.017) 0.116 0.981 (0.899–1.070) 0.662
cfDNA fragment size B2 (> 167 bp vs ≤ 167 bp) 0.498 (0.245–1.011) 0.054 0.841 (0.413–1.715) 0.635
cfDNA levels B2 (continuous) 1.061 (1.028–1.095) < 0.001 1.062 (1.026–1.099) 0.001
cfDNA levels B2 (> median vs ≤ median) 1.626 (0.786–3.365) 0.190 1.412 (0.664–3.002) 0.371
Age at diagnosis 1.003 (0.973–1.035) 0.833 0.990 (0.957–1.023) 0.539
Sex (male vs female) 1.194 (0.688–2.070) 0.529 1.194 (0.671–2.124) 0.546
Center (SUH vs HUH) 2.176 (1.153–4.105) 0.016 2.213 (1.130–4.337) 0.021
Tumor size (mm) 1.030 (1.012–1.049) 0.001 1.021 (1.001–1.041) 0.042
Tumor location   0.075   0.075
 Pancreas head Reference   Reference  
 Pancreas body 0.616 (0.182–2.088)   0.657 (0.197–2.195)  
 Pancreas tail 2.314 (1.165–4.596)   2.239 (1.125–4.458)  
 Multiple 1.135 (0.531–2.425)   1.581 (0.732–3.434)  
T-stage   0.342   0.350
 T2 Reference   Reference  
 T3 1.116 (0.471–2.645)   0.922 (0.367–2.318)  
 T4 0.664 (0.314–1.403)   0.603 (0.281–1.294)  
Clinical stage (Stage IV vs Stage III) 2.147 (0.836–5.515) 0.112 1.829 (0.715–4.678) 0.207
Metastatic location   0.457   0.735
 Liver Reference   Reference  
 Lung 0.382 (0.113–1.288)   0.590 (0.195–1.781)  
Multiple 0.726 (0.271–1.944)   0.767 (0.262–2.240)  
Other 0.841 (0.439–1.610)   0.740 (0.366–1.496)  
N-stage (N1 vs N0) 1.745 (0.760–4.006) 0.189 1.566 (0.703–3.488) 0.273
ECOG performance status   0.003   < 0.001
 0 Reference   Reference  
 1 1.656 (0.809–3.389)   1.634 (0.782–3.415)  
 2 5.057 (1.932–13.235)   6.810 (2.537–18.277)  
First-line treatment   < 0.001   < 0.001
 FOLFIRINOX Reference   Reference  
 Gemcitabine 14.760 (4.874–44.697)   15.099 (4.951–46.047)  
 Nab-Pac + gemcitabine 2.796 (1.481–5.280)   3.201 (1.665–6.155)  
Second-line treatment (yes vs no) 0.822 (0.453–1.490) 0.519 0.494 (0.255–0.955) 0.036
Prior anti-cancer surgery (yes vs no) 0.601 (0.287–1.260) 0.178 0.722 (0.324–1.612) 0.427
  1. a A positive marker indicates either short cfDNA fragment size or high cfDNA levels
  2. Italic indicates a significant p-value