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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of survival outcomes of 123 patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

From: The prognostic value of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study

Variables Overall survival (OS) Progression-free survival (PFS) Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFFS) Distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS)
HR (95% CI)a P value HR (95% CI)a P value HR (95% CI)a P value HR (95% CI)a P value
Age
 ≤ 60        Ref  
 > 60        2.510 (1.376–4.580) 0.003
Primary tumor site
 Pyriform sinus Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Posterior wall/postcricoid 2.590 (1.252–5.358) 0.010 2.328 (1.224–4.426) 0.010 2.608 (1.163–5.851) 0.020 2.914 (1.296–6.553) 0.010
pT classificationb
 T1–T2    Ref   Ref    
 T3–T4    1.842 (1.115–3.042) 0.005 3.063 (1.559–6.015) 0.001   
pN classificationb
 N0        Ref  
 N1–N3        2.519 (0.335–18.963) 0.370
pTNM stagingb
 I–II        Ref  
 III–IV        1.126 (0.151–8.402) 0.908
No. of metastatic LN
 ≤ 3        Ref  
 > 3        1.497 (0.731–3.066) 0.269
LND
 ≤ 0.06 Ref   Ref     Ref  
 > 0.06 1.959 (0.959–2.974) 0.070 1.971 (1.201–3.237) 0.007    2.430 (1.206–4.896) 0.013
ECS of LN
 Negative Ref       Ref  
 Positive 1.670 (0.866–3.222) 0.126      1.326 (0.665–2.647) 0.423
Surgical margin
 Negative Ref   Ref   Ref    
 Positive 2.842 (1.080–7.482) 0.034 1.790 (0.767–4.179) 0.178 3.455 (1.253–9.526) 0.017   
PNI
 > 52.0 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 ≤ 52.0 3.842 (1.963–7.518) 0.000 2.401 (1.419–4.061) 0.001 2.958 (1.388–6.307) 0.005 2.133 (1.154–3.943) 0.016
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. CI, confidence interval; ECS, extracapsular spread; HR, hazard ratio; LN, lymph node; LND, lymph node density; PNI, prognostic nutritional index; pT classification, pathological tumor classification; pN classification, pathological nodal classification; Ref, reference; TNM, tumor-node-metastasis
  3. aCox proportional hazards model. Bolding shows P value < 0.05
  4. bTumor-node-metastasis staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (7th edition)