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Table 1 Spices and their major components

From: Chronic diseases, inflammation, and spices: how are they linked?

Spice Scientific name Major components References
Anise Pimpinella anisum Anethole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde, methyl cavicol [164]
Asafoetida Ferula asafetida Ferulic acid, umbel-liferone, asaresinotannols, farnesiferols A, B, C, glucose, galactose, l-arabinose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, 2-butyl propenyl disulfide [165]
Basil Ocimum basilicum Estragole, linalool, 1, 8-cineole, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, α-cubebene, α-farnesene, caryophyllene, β-ocimene [166]
Bay leaves Laurus nobilis 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpinyl acetate, terpinene-4-ol [167, 168]
Black cumin Nigella sativa Thymoquinone, cuminaldehyde, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, p-mentha-1,3-diene-7-al, p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al [60, 169]
Black pepper Piper nigrum Piperine, β-caryophyllene, limonene, δ-3-carene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, myrcene, terpinolene [50]
Cardamom Elettaria cardamomum 1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, limonene, linalool, terpinolene, myrcene, linalyl acetate [56]
Celery seed Trachyspermum ammi 2 Isopropyl-5-methyl-phenol, octadecanoic acid, lupeol acetate, hexadecanoic acid, (3β, 24S)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol, lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate [170]
Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, cineole, eugenol, coumarin, linalool, humulene, ethyl cinnamate, β-caryophyllene, τ-cadinol [58]
Clove Syzygium aromaticm Eugenol, eugenyl acetate, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene [171]
Coriander Corriandrum sativum Petroselinic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, vaccenic acid, myristic acid [172]
Dill Anethum graveolens α-Phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, sabinene, α-pinene, n-tetracosane, neophytadiene, n-docosane, n-tricosane, n-nonadecane, n-eicosane, n-heneicosane, β-myrcene, α-tujene [173]
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Estragole, trans-anethole, fenchone, limonene, anisaldehyde, sabinene, β-myrcene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene [174]
Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum Diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, tigogenin, neotigogens, carpaine, trigonelline, gentianine, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, fenugreekine, choline [59]
Garlic Allium sativum Diallyl sulfides, diallyl disulfides, diallyl trisulfide, ajoene, allicin, alliin, methiin, S-allylcysteine, isoalliin, cycloalliin, S-allylmercaptocysteine [51]
Ginger Zingiber officinale [6]-gingerol, [6]-paradol, shogoal, 6-gingerdiol, gingerdione, zingiberene, citral (neral and geranial), bisabolene, α-farnesene, β-phellandrene, cineole, zingerone [52, 175]
Kokum Garcinia indica Garcinol, xanthochymol, isoxanthochymol, 1,2-dihydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid [61]
Mint Mentha spp. Carvone, limonene, 1, 8-cineole [176]
Mustard Sinapis alba Allyl isothiocyanate, phenethyl isothiocyanate [177]
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Eugenol, methyleugenol, methylisoeugenol, elemicin, myristicin, safrole [178]
Onion Allium cepa Quercetin, allyl propyl disulphide, protocatechuic acid, quercetin dimer, quercetin trimer, quercetin 4-o-β-glucoside, quercetin 3,4-o-β-diglucosides [54, 179]
Parsley Petroselinum crispum Apiole, apigenin, p-1,3,8-menthatriene, β-phellandrene, myrcene, rutin, myristicin [180]
Red pepper Capsicum Capsaicin, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein, caffeic acid, capsanthin [55]
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Ursolic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, α-pinene, camphor, limonene, camphene, borneol, cineole, (Z)-linalool oxide, bornyl acetate [62]
Saffron Crocus sativus Safranal, picrocrocin, crocetin, crocin [181]
Sage Salvia officinalis 1,8-cineole, camphor, α-thujone, β-thujone, viridiflorol, borneol [182]
Sesame Sesamum indicum Sesamin, sesamolin, sesamol, sesamolinol, γ-tocopherol, phytic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol, palmitic acid, stearic acid [183]
Star anise Illicium verum Estragole, aretrans-anethole, limonene, phenylpropanoids [64]
Thyme Thymus vulgaris Thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, linalool, borneol, β-caryophyllene, carvacrol methyl ether, caryophyllene oxide [184]
Turmeric Curcuma longa Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin [48]
Vanilla Vanilla planifolia Vanillin, ethyl vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, piperonal [185]