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Table 1 Changes of clinical and biochemical parameters after treatment

From: Lipid profiling of the therapeutic effects of berberine in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

  BBR plus LSI (n = 41) P value LSI (n = 39) P value
  Baseline After 16 w Baseline After 16 w
Sex (M/F) 26/15    20/19   
Age (years) 51.2 ± 9.4    50.8 ± 10.4   
Weight (kg) 77.0 ± 15.4 72.8 ± 13.3 <0.01 75.9 ± 10.6 74.0 ± 11.1 <0.05
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 ± 4.1 25.5 ± 3.3 <0.01 27.3 ± 3.0 26.0 ± 5.9 <0.05
Waist (cm) 94.5 ± 11.1 89.7 ± 9.7 <0.01 93.1 ± 7.3 90.8 ± 8.5 <0.05
HFC (%) 30.3 (22.2–44.0) 13.6 (9.3–17.4) <0.01 28.7 (21.9–46.8) 20.3 (11.3–33.0) <0.05
Blood glucose (mmol/L)
 0 min 6.4 ± 0.9 6.1 ± 1.3 <0.01 6.2 ± 1.0 6.2 ± 0.9 0.47
 30 min 11.1 ± 1.7 9.9 ± 1.9 <0.05 11.0 ± 1.7 10.4 ± 2.1 0.13
 60 min 13.1 ± 2.5 11.1 ± 2.6 <0.05 13.0 ± 2.6 11.9 ± 3.1 <0.05
 120 min 11.2 ± 3.0 8.6 ± 2.8 <0.05 10.8 ± 3.3 10.1 ± 2.9 0.14
 180 min 7.2 ± 2.3 5.4 ± 1.6 <0.05 6.5 ± 2.8 5.9 ± 2.3 <0.05
 AUCg 42.4 ± 7.6 36.3 ± 8.4 <0.05 41.2 ± 8.4 39.1 ± 9.3 <0.05
 HbA1c (%) 6.4 ± 0.7 6.0 ± 0.4 <0.01 6.3 ± 0.7 6.2 ± 0.7 0.11
Serum insulin (mU/mL)       
 0 min 13.4 (8.5–16.2) 10.8 (8.5–14.1) 0.97 3.4 (8.6–18.6) 12.4 (7.1–19.1) 0.89
 30 min 41.0 (30.6–62.2) 47.9 (33.3–88.5) 0.34 59.9 (33.2–83.4) 54.2 (28.8–77.7) 0.28
 120 min 69.9 (47.5–100.9) 68.0 (41.2–103.1) 0.75 78.1 (57.1–132.7) 74.6 (45.7–117.9) 0.23
 HOMA-IR 3.6 (2.4–4.1) 2.8 (2.2–3.9) 0.21 3.7 (2.5–5.0) 3.4 (1.8–5.1) 0.32
 HOMAβ 88.2 (54.3–114.4) 93.1 (64.1–129.6) 0.12 97.7 (62.2–151.1) 100.0 (56.8–152.6) 0.69
 ΔI30/ΔG30 8.0 (4.1–13.6) 10.7 (5.3–20.3) P < 0.05 9.4 (5.0–16.6) 9.3 (3.6–18.6) 0.65
 TC (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.9 4.6 ± 1.0 P < 0.01 5.0 ± 0.8 5.0 ± 0.8 0.92
 TG (mmol/L) 2.2 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 0.9 P < 0.05 2.0 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 1.1 0.69
 HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.3 0.65 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.2 0.55
 LDL-c (mmol/L) 3.2 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 0.9 P < 0.05 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.8 0.73
 APO-A(g/L) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 1.2 (1.0–1.3) P < 0.05 1.3 (1.0–1.4) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 0.89
 APO-B(g/L) 1.0 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 P < 0.05 1.0 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2 0.28
 APO-E (mg/L) 48.0 (37.0–57.3) 42.5 (36.0–49.7) 0.08 44.0 (37.9–52.3) 44.0 (38.5–56.5) 0.94
 LP(a) (mg/L) 104.0 (50.0–248.0) 101.0 (49.5–272.0) P < 0.05 155.0 (78.0–218.0) 160.0 (90.3–263.0) 0.23
Liver enzyme (U/L)
 ALT 36.0 (24.5–47.0) 21.0 (13.5–29.5) P < 0.01 34.0 (25.3–46.5) 21.0 (15.0–36.3) P < 0.01
 AST 25.0 (20.0–32.0) 19.0 (16.0–22.5) P < 0.01 25.0 (20.0–30.0) 20.5 (15.8–27.0) P < 0.05
 γ-GT 39.0 (26.0–67.5) 30.0 (23.0–43.0) P < 0.01 33.0 (22.0–56.5) 27.5 (20.5–48.8) P < 0.05
  1. The data were presented as the mean ± SD, except for skewed variables, which were presented as the median with the interquartile range given in parentheses
  2. LSI lifestyle intervention, BBR plus LSI berberine treatment plus lifestyle intervention, BMI body-mass index, HFC hepatic fat content, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, γ-GT γ-glutamyltransferase