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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of OSA patients and control subjects

From: Longitudinal brain structural alterations and systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea before and after surgical treatment

  NC (controls) OSAbaseline
(before surgery)
OSAfollow
(after surgery)
p value
NC vs. OSAbaseline NC vs.
OSAfollow
OSAbaseline vs.
OSAfollow
Number 15 21     
Sex (M:F) 11:4 18:3   0.418   
Age (years) 39.80 (9.53) 40.14 (10.80)   0.922   
BMI (kg/m2) 23.97 (2.50) 26.24 (3.40) 25.83 (3.73) 0.050 0.130 0.033*
HbA1c (%) 5.54 (0.25) 5.80 (0.46) 5.75 (0.54) 0.206 0.338 0.537
Sugar (mg/dl) 92.00 (8.04) 93.43 (12.14) 95.05 (12.40) 0.925 0.546 0.217
hs-CRP (mg/dl) 0.80 (0.81) 3.22 (4.30) 2.32 (2.62) 0.108 0.069 0.292
Total cholesterol 192.10 (34.93) 191.96 (29.98) 194.57 (32.00) 0.880 0.985 0.599
Triglyceride 120.87 (95.78) 156.13 (107.13) 154.87 (79.05) 0.441 0.343 0.926
HDL 62.67 (14.44) 54.70 (10.57) 53.39 (10.32) 0.085 0.056 0.393
LDL 106.40 (34.41) 122.04 (29.46) 115.04 (39.67) 0.171 0.540 0.318
Smoking (yes/no) (14/1) (18/3) (19/2) 0.728 1.000 1.000
Voxel-based morphometry
GMV (ml) 613.32 (49.33) 620.69 (72.14) 620.86 (72.69) 0.707 0.702 0.953
WMV (ml) 587.49 (59.16) 583.96 (53.91) 582.17 (50.92) 0.851 0.722 0.373
CSFV (ml) 216.52 (25.02) 215.96 (22.39) 216.81 (22.52) 0.943 0.971 0.477
TIV (ml) 1417.33 (113.22) 1420.61 (119.15) 1419.83 (119.06) 0.931 0.947 0.674
Polysomnography (PSG)
AHI 2.43 (1.61) 38.77 (19.91) 25.21 (20.93) 0.000* 0.000* 0.004*
De-saturation index 0.77 (0.82) 26.59 (19.38) 16.88 (19.23) 0.000* 0.006* 0.009*
Average O2 saturation 97.09 (0.82) 95.59 (1.39) 95.81 (1.79) 0.004* 0.053 0.534
Snoring index 208.96 (240.67) 385.71 (179.17) 323.52 (181.58) 0.059 0.278 0.116
Systolic BP (mmHg) 124.90 (15.86) 135.58 (15.38) 132.07 (11.58) 0.538 0.497 0.323
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 75.53 (9.09) 84.58 (11.00) 82.55 (12.01) 0.082 0.142 0.469
Leukocyte apoptosis (%)
Granulocyte APO 2.7 apoptosis 0.429 (0.219) 0.894 (1.012) 0.831 (0.940) 0.160 0.125 0.830
Monocyte APO 2.7 apoptosis 2.135 (1.410) 3.156 (3.321) 2.570 (2.903) 0.439 0.575 0.585
Lymphocyte APO 2.7 apoptosis 0.481 (0.226) 0.658 (0.444) 0.475 (0.255) 0.283 0.835 0.164
Total leukocyte APO 2.7 apoptosis 0.891 (0.426) 1.442 (1.084) 1.271 (1.004) 0.128 0.236 0.626
Granulocyte late apoptosis 11.726 (6.986) 16.667 (10.032) 14.599 (14.039) 0.107 0.331 0.622
Granulocyte early apoptosis 13.920 (5.615)) 23.117 (11.007) 18.250 (12.008) 0.010* 0.302 0.099
Monocyte late apoptosis 12.593 (7.401) 12.480 (8.384) 14.520 (8.876) 0.936 0.428 0.318
Monocyte early apoptosis 15.263 (5.068) 23.254 (8.033) 16.796 (8.342) 0.002* 0.579 0.007*
Lymphocyte late apoptosis 2.331 (1.090) 2.306 (0.915) 2.577 (1.178) 0.906 0.647 0.601
Lymphocyte early apoptosis 5.410 (1.988) 6.716 (2.505) 6.600 (2.624) 0.147 0.210 0.981
Total leukocyte late apoptosis 6.875 (2.588) 7.541 (3.170) 7.972 (4.126) 0.407 0.174 0.744
Total leukocyte early apoptosis 9.203 (1.987) 13.535 (3.713) 10.599 (4.431) 0.000* 0.286 0.021*
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD)
  2. Age data was compared by independent t-test; sex data was compared by Pearson’s Chi square test; BMI data was compared by ANCOVA after controlling for age and sex; Sugar, HbA1c, hs-CRP, smoking, voxel-based morphometry measurement, polysomnography result and leukocyte apoptosis data were compared by ANCOVA after controlling for age, sex, and BMI
  3. AHI apnea-hypopnea index; ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance; BMI, body mass index, CSFV cerebrospinal fluid volume; GMV gray matter volume; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein; LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; NC normal controls; OSA obstructive sleep apnea; TIV total intracranial volume; WMV white matter volume
  4. NC vs. OSAbaseline: Statistical comparison was performed by ANCOVA between controls and OSAbaseline
  5. NC vs. OSAfollow: Statistical comparison was performed by ANCOVA between controls and OSAfollow
  6. OSAbaseline vs. OSAfollow: Statistical comparison was performed by paired t test between OSAbaseline and OSAfollow
  7. * Statistical threshold was set at p < 0.05