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Fig. 2 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on cognitive functioning in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion

Fig. 2

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) prevents memory loss after middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) injury. a Typical traces from a water maze experiment recorded pre- (day-1) and post-surgery (day 7 and day 14), from the Sham (n = 12), MCAO/R (n = 11), and MCAO/R+VNS (n = 11) groups. Memory was assessed on days 7 and 14 after MCAO/R by measuring escape latencies (b), path lengths (c), and swimming speeds (d). *Indicates a significant difference between the MCAO/R and Sham groups. #Indicates a significant difference between the MCAO/R and MCAO/R+VNS groups. &Indicates a significant difference between day 7 and day 14 (p < 0.05)

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