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Table 2 Echocardiographic data in the three groups

From: Metabolomic approach to profile functional and metabolic changes in heart failure

  Group A Group B Group C
Systolic function
 LVEF (%) 61.3 ± 5.8 41.9 ± 4.0## 25.3 ± 10.3##,∫∫
 S (cm/s) 7.63 ± 3.0 5.42 ± 1.91# 4.62 ± 1.84##,∫
 GLS (%) 15.6 ± 3.2 9.9 ± 1.5## 4.9 ± 2.2##,∫∫
Diastolic function
 E/A 0.89 ± 0.30 0.74 ± 0.30 1.79 ± 1.70
E′/A′ 0.78 ± 0.30 0.78 ± 0.38 0.79 ± 0.45
E/E′ 9.83 ± 3.78 12.50 ± 5.95 21.07 ± 12.21*
  1. LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, S systolic peak velocity, GLS global longitudinal strain, E early ventricular filling peak velocity, A atrial (late) peak velocity, E′ early mitral annular velocity, A′ late mitral annular velocity
  2. * p < 0.05 vs Group A; #p < 0.01 vs Group A; ##p < 0.001 vs Group A; p < 0.05 vs Group B; ∫∫p < 0.001 vs Group B
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