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Table 1 Changes of gut microbiota in complications after transplantation

From: Gut microbiota and allogeneic transplantation

  Complications Changes in microbiota Animal/human studies
LT Acute rejection Bacteroides and Ruminococcus ↑ [51] Animal study
  Phylum Bacteroidetes ↑ phylum Firmicutes [52] Animal study
Infection Bifidobacterium dentium ↑ [53] Human study
Chronic bile duct hyperplasia Enterococcus and Enterobacteria Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus ↓ [56] Animal study
SBT Acute rejection Phylum Proteobacteria ↑ phylum Firmicutes ↓ [61] Human study
Chronic rejection Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp. ↑ Lactobacillales ↓ [62] Animal study
KT Diarrhea Bacteroides, Ruminococcus and Coprococcus ↓ [63] Human study
Urinary tract infection Enterococcus ↑ [63] Human study
Acute rejection Bacteroidetes ↓ [63] Human study
HSCT Graft-versus-host disease Enterococci ↑ [66] Human study
Lactobacillales ↑ Clostridiales ↓ [69] Animal study
Escherichia coli ↑ [70] Animal study
Enterococci and Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. ↑ [78] Animal study
  1. LT liver transplantation, SBT small bowel transplantation, KT kidney transplantation and HSCT hematopoietic stem cell transplantation