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Table 4 Effect on Co-enzymes Q in liver, kidney, heart, brain and testes in absence (CdCl2) and presence of AEIA (AEIA + CdCl2) and AEEF (AEEF + CdCl2) in mice

From: The effects of two common edible herbs, Ipomoea aquatica and Enhydra fluctuans, on cadmium-induced pathophysiology: a focus on oxidative defence and anti-apoptotic mechanism

Parameters Gr Liver Kidney Heart Brain Testes
ROS production (nmol DCF/min/mg of protein) I 28.65 ± 1.67 38.15 ± 2.24 28.15 ± 2.02 33.49 ± 2.23 31.49 ± 1.54
II 78.56 ± 3.92# 86.29 ± 3.48# 64.13 ± 3.69# 67.09 ± 5.12# 71.23 ± 4.28#
III 53.47 ± 2.67** 66.50 ± 4.54** 49.95 ± 3.15* 50.21 ± 3.85* 52.15 ± 3.94**
IV 59.33 ± 3.45** 71.18 ± 4.12* 51.78 ± 3.88* 52.33 ± 3.08* 56.01 ± 3.42*
Lipid peroxidation (TBARS level in μg/g of tissue) I 5.11 ± 0.76 8.76 ± 1.01 4.21 ± 0.58 2.34 ± 0.32 3.22 ± 0.32
II 8.74 ± 0.98# 16.15 ± 2.11# 8.25 ± 0.58# 4.12 ± 0.50# 5.58 ± 0.72#
III 5.86 ± 0.54* 10.24 ± 1.54* 5.02 ± 0.45** 2.67 ± 0.24* 3.61 ± 0.42*
IV 5.94 ± 0.72* 10.58 ± 1.33* 5.21 ± 0.62* 2.86 ± 0.33* 3.78 ± 0.45*
Protein cabonylation (nmol/mg of protein) I 34.56 ± 1.89 4.87 ± 0.54 2.31 ± 0.22 1.92 ± 0.34 1.02 ± 0.12
II 72.13 ± 2.67# 9.76 ± 1.01# 5.02 ± 0.51# 3.87 ± 0.56$ 1.97 ± 0.23#
III 41.32 ± 2.01** 6.65 ± 0.67* 3.28 ± 0.33* 2.24 ± 0.48* 1.32 ± 0.09*
IV 44.56 ± 2.11** 6.89 ± 0.78* 3.41 ± 0.42* 2.29 ± 0.31* 1.38 ± 0.14*
NADPH oxidase (pmol/min/mg of protein) I 0.42 ± 0.03 0.56 ± 0.04 0.67 ± 0.03 0.38 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.03
II 3.67 ± 0.55# 4.55 ± 0.67# 3.91 ± 0.40# 2.98 ± 0.33# 3.18 ± 0.28#
III 2.45 ± 0.18* 2.85 ± 0.33* 2.44 ± 0.45* 1.85 ± 0.24* 2.24 ± 0.35*
IV 2.58 ± 0.21* 2.89 ± 0.54* 2.58 ± 0.32* 1.89 ± 0.27* 2.38 ± 0.26
Total coenzyme Q9 (nmol/g of wet tissue) I 178.67 ± 9.14 148.32 ± 6.33 58.24 ± 3.98 28.67 ± 1.72 98.72 ± 4.92
II 124.56 ± 7.33# 112.56 ± 5.59# 39.21 ± 2.21# 17.87 ± 1.08# 66.67 ± 3.90#
III 164.43 ± 8.39** 144.06 ± 6.18** 53.12 ± 2.92* 24.41 ± 1.45* 84.56 ± 4.04*
IV 158.25 ± 7.53* 139.33 ± 5.89* 49.32 ± 2.54 24.18 ± 1.52* 81.31 ± 3.78
Total coenzyme Q10 (nmol/g of wet tissue) I 30.50 ± 2.34 25.67 ± 1.92 27.24 ± 1.98 7.51 ± 0.46 14.21 ± 1.02
II 18.72 ± 1.78# 15.70 ± 1.18# 18.67 ± 1.02# 4.35 ± 0.22# 8.67 ± 0.84#
III 28.33 ± 1.98** 23.65 ± 1.78** 24.89 ± 1.54* 6.12 ± 0.52* 12.33 ± 1.10*
IV 27.65 ± 2.12* 22.04 ± 1.04* 24.10 ± 1.42 5.78 ± 0.42 11.75 ± 0.78
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SE, for six animals in each group. #Values differ significantly from normal control (p < 0.01). $ Values differ significantly from normal control (p < 0.01). * Values differ significantly from CdCl2 control (p < 0.05). ** Values differ significantly from CdCl2 control (p < 0.01). Group I: Normal control; Group II: Toxic control; Group III: AEIA (100 mg/kg) + CdCl2 (4 mg/kg); Group IV: AEEF (100 mg/kg) + CdCl2 (4 mg/kg).