CD33+ blast involvement in inducing alterations in cytokine production by Th1,Th2 and Th17. a CD4+ cells isolated from 15 HV and CD33+ cells from 15 AML were co-seeded in a 1:1 ratio in the same well [direct co-culture (CC)] or in a transwell cell culture system (indirect CC). All samples were stimulated with IL-6 and PMA + I as previously described. At the end of stimulation, T cell immunophenotypic and cytokine secretion analysis were achieved. Data (mean and standard deviations) from direct or indirect CC were compared with pooled data obtained from 15 HV (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0005). b HV CD4+ cells and CD33+ blasts were directly or indirectly co-seeded in 1:5 and 1:10 ratios, respectively. All samples were stimulated with IL-6 and PMA + I and then analyzed for IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 production and IL-17 and IL-10 simultaneous secretion. Data are expressed as mean and standard deviation (P > 0.05).