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Table 4 Cardiovascular events and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by tertiles of flavonoid intake (the first the lower; the third, the higher)

From: Dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk: a population-based cohort study

  First tertile Second tertile Third tertile
Total flavonoids
 Incident CV events 54 40    31   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.65 0.42–0.99 0.05 0.45 0.28–0.73 0.001
  Model 2 1 0.64 0.42–1.00 0.05 0.46 0.28–0.75 0.002
 CV mortality 34 26    24   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.97 0.56–1.67 0.90 0.81 0.45–1.44 0.47
  Model 2 1 0.95 0.54–1.66 0.85 0.83 0.46–1.51 0.55
 All-cause mortality 89 69    62   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.86 0.62–1.21 0.38 0.73 0.51–1.04 0.08
  Model 2 1 0.90 0.65–1.26 0.52 0.78 0.55–1.13 0.19
Proanthocyanids
 Incident CV events 57 37    31   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.56 0.36–0.86 0.01 0.42 0.26–0.68 <0.001
  Model 2 1 0.56 0.36–0.87 0.009 0.43 0.27–0.70 0.001
 CV mortality 34 27    23   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.99 0.58–1.70 0.97 0.77 0.43–1.39 0.39
  Model 2 1 0.98 0.56–1.69 0.93 0.80 0.44–1.46 0.46
 All-cause mortality 90 70    60   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.85 0.61–1.19 0.35 0.69 0.48–0.99 0.05
  Model 2 1 0.88 0.63–1.24 0.46 0.75 0.52–1.08 0.12
Flavan-3-ols
 Incident CV events 57 42    26   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.69 0.46–1.05 0.08 0.40 0.25–0.65 <0.001
  Model 2 1 0.71 0.47–1.08 0.11 0.42 0.26–0.68 <0.001
 CV mortality 37 23    24   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.75 0.44–1.29 0.30 0.70 0.40–1.20 0.19
  Model 2 1 0.79 0.46–1.37 0.40 0.72 0.41–1.26 0.25
 All-cause mortality 92 71    57   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.84 0.61–1.15 0.27 0.63 0.44–0.89 0.009
  Model 2 1 0.86 0.62–1.19 0.36 0.68 0.48–0.96 0.03
Anthocyanidins
 Incident CV events 53 35    37   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.59 0.38–0.92 0.02 0.58 0.37–0.92 0.02
  Model 2 1 0.58 0.37–0.91 0.02 0.56 0.36–0.89 0.02
 CV mortality 40 20    24   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.58 0.33–1.01 0.05 0.65 0.37–1.15 0.14
  Model 2 1 0.56 0.32–0.98 0.04 0.67 0.38–1.18 0.16
 All-cause mortality 95 62    63   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.69 0.50–0.96 0.03 0.66 0.47–0.94 0.02
  Model 2 1 0.66 0.47–0.94 0.02 0.66 0.46–0.95 0.02
Flavanones
 Incident CV events 54 42    29   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.71 0.47–1.07 0.11 0.45 0.28–0.73 0.001
  Model 2 1 0.73 0.48–1.10 0.13 0.48 0.29–0.77 0.003
 CV mortality 39 24    21   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.67 0.40–1.13 0.14 0.56 0.32–0.99 0.05
  Model 2 1 0.71 0.42–1.20 0.20 0.66 0.37–1.17 0.15
 All-cause mortality 91 80    49   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.91 0.67–1.24 0.54 0.54 0.37–0.78 0.001
  Model 2 1 0.94 0.68–1.29 0.69 0.59 0.40–0.85 0.005
Flavonols
 Incident CV events 56 31    38   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.49 0.31–0.76 0.002 0.53 0.34–0.83 0.006
  Model 2 1 0.51 0.32–0.80 0.003 0.53 0.34–0.83 0.005
 CV mortality 36 22    26   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.63 0.36–1.09 0.10 0.68 0.39–1.19 0.18
  Model 2 1 0.69 0.40–1.20 0.19 0.72 0.41–1.27 0.26
 All-cause mortality 91 64    65   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.72 0.51–1.00 0.05 0.70 0.50–0.99 0.05
  Model 2 1 0.78 0.55–1.08 0.14 0.72 0.51–1.02 0.06
Flavones
 Incident CV events 42 51    32   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 1.13 0.74–1.72 0.56 0.68 0.41–1.10 0.11
  Model 2 1 1.14 0.75–1.75 0.54 0.66 0.40–1.09 0.10
 CV mortality 30 31    23   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 1.08 0.64–1.82 0.77 0.87 0.48–1.56 0.63
  Model 2 1 1.10 0.65–1.87 0.72 0.83 0.45–1.52 0.55
 All-cause mortality 88 71    61   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.79 0.57–1.09 0.16 0.71 0.50–1.01 0.06
  Model 2 1 0.83 0.60–1.16 0.28 0.73 0.51–1.05 0.09
Isoflavones
 Incident CV events 48 38    39   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.78 0.51–1.20 0.26 0.77 0.49–1.19 0.23
  Model 2 1 0.81 0.53–1.25 0.35 0.77 0.49–1.21 0.26
 CV mortality 30 34    20   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 1.23 0.74–2.03 0.42 0.78 0.44–1.41 0.42
  Model 2 1 1.21 0.73–2.02 0.48 0.74 0.41–1.36 0.34
 All-cause mortality 95 63    62   
  HR HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
  Model 1 1 0.68 0.49–0.94 0.02 0.70 0.50–0.98 0.04
  Model 2 1 1.45 1.05–2.00 0.03 1.39 1.00–1.95 0.05
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, living in a rural area, METs (h/week), fiber and saturated fatty acid intakes, Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, living in a rural area, METs (hour/week), fiber, and saturated fatty acid intakes, alcohol intake, smoking, values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, CRP, statin and aspirin use.