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Table 1 Environmental and lifestyle factors suggested to upregulate miR-21 signaling

From: MiR-21: an environmental driver of malignant melanoma?

MiR-21 stimulus Mode of action [Refs.]
UV-irradiation IL-6, STAT3; exosome release [15, 135137]
Cell phone use STAT3 upregulation [156]
Smoking Increased miR-21 expression [67, 230]
Alcohol abuse Increased miR-21 expression [226]
Pollution Increased miR-21 expression by particulate matter [237]
Increased miR-21 expression by diesel exhaust [238]
Arsenic Increased miR-21 expression [65, 232235]
Exosome release of bronchial epithelial cells [236]
Inflammation IL-1β, IL-6, STAT3 [192198]
Milk consumption Uptake of milk-delivered exosomal miR-21 [16, 17, 162168]
Transfer of bovine miR-155, STAT3; IL-6 [169, 170, 173]
Obesity Increased adipocyte miR-21 expression [210, 212]
Adipocyte-derived exosome release [211216]
Tumor diseases Release of tumor cell-derived exosomes [44, 178186]
Sedentary lifestyle Physical exercise decreases miR-21 expression [229]
Higher age Increased plasma miR-21 levels [189]