Effect of anthocyanins on intracellular signalling, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in HGECs cultured in low-glucose (5 mmol/L d-glucose) or high-glucose (40 mmol/L d-glucose) medium with or without anthocyanin treatment (50 μg/mL). Phospho-Thr172 AMPK, total AMPK, PPARα, PGC-1α, ERR-1α, PPARγ, phospho-ACC, total ACC, and β-actin levels were assessed using cultured HGECs. Protein lysates (10 μg) were separated by SDS-PAGE and analysed by western blotting. a Representative western blots and quantitative analyses of phospho-Thr172 AMPK, total AMPK, PPARα, PGC-1α, ERR-1α, and β-actin. b–e Quantitative analyses of phospho-Thr172 AMPK/total AMPK (b), PPARα (c), PGC-1α (d), and ERR-1α (e). f–h Representative western blots of PPARγ, phospho-ACC, total ACC, and β-actin in HGECs (f) and quantitative analyses of the results g, h. i–l Representative western blots of SOD-1, SOD-2, BCL-2, BAX, and β-actin levels in HGECs (i) and quantitative analyses of the results (j–l). *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 compared with high-glucose medium. HG high glucose, LG low glucose.