Culture of A549 (cells and supernatant, respectively) with PBMCs from lung cancer patients. The roles of inflammation-activated lung cancer cells in phenotype alterations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with lung cancer. A549 cells were stimulated with LPS at 100 and 500 ng/ml for 24 hrs, and LPS-stimulated A549 cells and their supernatant were then harvested. PBMC from lung cancer patients were co-cultured with harvested LPS-stimulated A549 cells and their supernatant for 48 hrs, respectively. The control group was PBMC from lung cancer patients without co-culture. A: frequency of CD4+ T cells in total PBMCs, B: frequency of CD19+ B cells in total PBMCs, C: frequency of Tregs in CD4+ T cells, D: frequency of CD45RA+Tregs in CD4+ T cells, E: frequency of CD19+CD24hiCD27+ B cells in CD19+ B cells, and F: frequency of CD19+IL-10+ B cells in CD19+ B cells. + stands for p value less than 0.05, as compared with PBMC co-culture with vehicle-stimulated A549 cells. *, **, and *** stand for 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 stand for p value less than 0.05, as compared with corresponding LPS-stimulated PBMC.