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Table 1 Unadjusted and adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for HPV positivity and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to selected descriptive characteristics among 3008 women in Qatar

From: Molecular epidemiology and genotype distribution of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among Arab women in the state of Qatar

  Total no. women HPV positive, n (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age groups     
16-24 136 (4.5) 7 (5.1) 1 1
25-34 756 (25.1) 44 (5.8) 1.14 (0.50-2.58) 1.20 (0.53-2.73)
35-44 919 (30.6) 51 (5.5) 1.08 (0.48-2.44) 1.15 (0.51-2.59)
45-54 835 (27.8) 54 (6.5) 1.27 (0.57-2.86) 1.36 (0.60-3.07)
≥55 362 (12.0) 26 (7.2) 1.43 (0.60-3.37) 1.49 (0.63-3.54)
Cytology results     
Normal cytology 2959 (98.4) 173 (5.8) 1 1
Abnormal cytology 49 (1.6) 9 (18.4) 3.62 (1.73-7.59)* 3.68 (1.75-7.75)
Clinical findings     
Routine smear test 2401 (79.8) 142 (5.9) 1 1
Symptomatic results 607 (20.2) 40 (6.6) 1.12 (0.78-1.61) 1.15 (0.80-1.65)
Nationality     
Qatari 1404 (46.7) 87 (6.2) 1 1
Non-Qatari 1604 (53.3) 95 (5.9) 0.95 (0.71-1.29) 1.00 (0.73-1.36)
Nationality     
Qatari 1404 (46.7) 87 (6.2) 1 --
Egyptian 465 (15.5) 26 (5.6) 0.90 (0.57-1.41)  
Arabian peninsula$ 310 (10.3) 14 (4.5) 0.72 (0.40-1.28)  
Fertile Crescent£ 566 (18.8) 37 (6.5) 1.06 (0.71-1.58)  
North Africa# 95 (3.2) 7 (7.4) 1.20 (0.54-2.68)  
East Africa^ 168 (5.6) 11 (6.5) 1.06 (0.55-2.03)  
  1. *p-value < 0.05.
  2. $Arabian Peninsula excluding Qatar (KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE, Oman, Yemen).
  3. £Fertile Crescent excluding Egypt (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria).
  4. #North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania).
  5. ^East Africa (Somalia, Djibouti, Sudan and Comoros).
  6. Symptomatic results include: cervical erosion, genital warts, lower abdominal pain, menorrhagia, pelvic pain, post coital bleeding, primary infertility, secondary infertility, vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge, vaginal spotting and vulva itching.