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Table 2 Strategies to be refined to expand the stem cell therapeutic procedure

From: Advancing stem cell therapy from bench to bedside: lessons from drug therapies

Functional therapeutic approaches Therapeutic strategies Benefits/outcomes Problems to be addressed
Co-administration Multiple cell types Utilization of cell heterogeneity Utilization of correct combinations
Genetically engineered cells
Combinations of progenitors
Cytokines Exploiting cell signalling synergistically Understanding cell signalling for effective cell formulations
Growth factors
Transcription factors
Pre-conditioning Chemical (drugs) Cyto-protection Developing safer reprogramming & programming methods
Physical Stimuli (hypoxia, electrical stimulation, ultrasound) Better cell survival
Genetic Increased differentiation potential
Small molecules Enhanced paracrine effects Understanding the mechanisms triggering the cytoprotective and other signalling pathways in response to preconditioning stimuli
Pre-coating Efficient homing & integration
Route of transfusion/translation Local or systemic Targeted delivery Developing efficient labelling for cell tracking post transplantation
Intracranial, intranasal, circulatory system Better cell survival & integration post transplantation Complexity of multiple route delivery mechanisms
Intra-arterial, intra venous, cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar puncture Understanding the migratory properties & migratory behaviour of cells through different delivery routes
Doses & Durations Cell dose based on MSCs sources Minimize side effects by fixed dose Determine the potential cell source for transplantation
Single or multiple infusion Preventing cell lose Determine the dose associated efficacy of allogeneic/autogenic/cryopreserved MSCs