Effects of single agent and combination therapy on cell cycle progression. Melanoma cells were treated with 5 μM vemurafenib, 10 mM metformin, or the combination for 24 hours. Afterwards cell cycle analysis was performed using DAPI staining and analyzed by flow cytometry. a) Cell cycle analysis of M263 treated with DMSO, vemurafenib, metformin, and the combination. b) Cell cycle changes after single agent vemurafenib. c) Cell cycle changes after single agent metformin. d) Cell cycle changes after combination of vemurafenib and metformin. Columns indicate a ratio of change over baseline (DMSO treatment). BRAFV600E mutants are presented in green, NRASQ61 in red, and the wild type M257 in black.