Engraftment of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in renal tissue after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Upper panel: Identification of Dil-positive ADMSCs (red) (400 ×) in peri-tubular area (green arrows) and interstitial area of kidney (yellow arrows) 72 h post-IR. DAPI counter-staining for nuclei (blue). Scale bars at right lower corners represent 20 μm Lower panel: By days 3 and 14, notably higher number of CD31+ cells (yellow arrows) in control group than in IR and IR + ADMSC groups. Significantly increased number in IR + ADMSC group than in IR group (n = 8 in each group). Merged image from double staining with Dil + CD31 shown in "IR + ADMSC". Note numerous doubly-stained cells in peri-tubular and interstitial areas (white arrows). Scale bars at right lower corners represent 20 μm. 1) Normal vs. day 3, *p < 0.001 between the indicated groups. 2) Normal vs. day 14, *p < 0.001 between the indicated groups. Symbols (*, †, ‡, §, ¶) indicate significance (at 0.05 level) (by Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test).