Localization and conservation of beneficial and non-beneficial OLP in HIV-1 clade B and C cohorts. Total HIV-1-specific T cell responses were assessed in a cohort of 223 chronically HIV clade B infected, untreated individuals in Lima, Peru (graphs A-C) and in 631 chronically HIV clade C infected, untreated individuals in Durban, South Africa (graphs D-F) using peptide test sets of 410 18 mer overlapping peptides (OLP) spanning the consensus B and C sequences, respectively [2, 31]. For each OLP, the protective ratio (PR, defined as "the ratio of the log median viral load in OLP non-responders divided by log median viral load in OLP responders") was determined. Each symbol represents an individual OLP, grouped either by (A, D) proteins or (B, E) protein-subunits for OLP located in Gag, Pol and Env (p-values in A, D based on ANOVA, in B, E on Mann-Whitney by pariwise comparing the different protein subunits, red lines indicating median PR values). In (C and F), the OLP-specific entropy (a measure of the viral diversity in the region the OLP spans) is compared to the OLP-specific PR and shows an inverse association between the sequence conservation and PR (Spearman rank).