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Table 1 Difference between M1, M2 and TAM activation, membrane receptors, cytokines/chemokines produced and markers.

From: Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

  M1-Classically Activated M2-Alternatively Activated TAMS References
Activation INFγ, LPS IL-4, IL-13, IL-10 CSF-1, VEGF, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL8, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, TGFβ-1, PGE2. Coffelt et al [4]
Joyce and Pollard [9]
Mantovani et al [84]
Membrane Receptors TLR2, TLR4, CD16,CD32, CD64, CD80, CD86 Scavenger receptor A, Scavenger receptor B, CD14, CD23, CD163 CD11b+, CD14-, CD31-, CD45+, CD68+, CD117-, CD122-, CD146-, CD204+, CD206+, CCR2+,CSF1R+, MHCII+, CD23+, CD163+, CXCR4+, VEGFR1+, VEGFR2-, F4/80+(mice) [4, 9, 84]
Cytokines produced IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, TNF, RNI, ROI IL-1ra, IL-1 decoy receptor, EGF, FGF, VEGF, TNF-β, bFGF, FGF, HFG, EGFR, PDGF, VEGF, ANG1, ANG2, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α, TP, MMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, NO, CSF-1 [4, 9, 84]
Chemokines produced CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-4, CCL-5 CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 CCL-12, CCL-16, CCL-17, CCL-18, CCL-22, CCL-24 CCL-2, CCL-3 [4, 9, 84]
Marker iNOS Arginase F4/80 (mice), CD34 (humans) [4, 9, 84]