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Table 1 Candidate biomarkers for human cancers discovered by cancer secretome analysis

From: The cancer secretome: a reservoir of biomarkers

Cancer Screening methods Verification methods Candidate biomarkers References
Lung SDS-PAGE/nano-ESI-MS/MS ELISA CD98, fascin, 14-3-3 η, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor/secretory component [73]
  2-DE/MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS Western blot/ELISA/IHC Cathepsin D [28]
  2-DE/MALDI-TOF-MS RT-PCR/western blot/ELISA/IHC Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase [27]
  SDS-PAGE/MALDI-TOF-MS ELISA L-lactate dehydrogenase B [90]
  2-DE/MALDI-TOF-MS RT-PCR/enzyme activity detection Mn-SOD [29]
Liver LC-MS/MS Western blot Apolipoprotein E, DJ-1, apolipoprotein H, galectin-3, cathepsin L, cyclophilin A, cystatin C [41]
Pancreatic NuPAGE/LC-MS/MS/SILAC Western blot/IHC CD9, perlecan, SDF4, apolipoprotein E, fibronectin receptor, Mac-2 binding protein, cathepsin D, cathepsin B, MCP-1, L1CAM [25]
  LC-MS/MS RT-PCR/western blot/IHC CSPG2/versican, Mac25/angiomodulin [43]
Bladder SDS-PAGE/MALDI-TOF-MS Western blot Pro-u-plasminogen activator [91]
  LC-MS/MS   CXCL1 [92]
Nasopharyngeal SDS-PAGE/MALDI-TOF-MS Western blot/ELISA/IHC Fibronectin, Mac-2 binding protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [69]
Prostate LC-MS/MS Western blot/ELISA Mac-2 binding protein [40]
  Oligonucleotide microarray/genome-based computational prediction RT-PCR/ELISA/IHC Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 [22]
  LC-MS/MS ELISA follistatin, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16, pentraxin 3, spondin 2 [93]
Melanoma NuPAGE/LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS Western blot Cathepsin D, gp100 [79]
Breast LC-MS/MS Western blot Galectin-3-binding protein, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin [94]
  LC-MS/MS ELISA Elafin [95]
Colorectal SDS-PAGE/MALDI-TOF-MS Q-PCR/Western blot/IHC/ELISA Collapsing response mediator protein-2 [72]
  2-DE/DIGE/MALDI-TOF-MS Northern blot/western blot Cathepsin D, stratifin, calumenin [21]
Renal 2-DE/MALDI-TOF-MS/immunoblotting Western blot/homogeneous fluorescent immunoassay Pro-MMP-7 [68]
Oral SDS-PAGE/MALDI-TOF-MS Western blot/IHC/ELISA Mac-2 binding protein [70]
Fibrosarcoma Capillary ultrafiltration probe/2-DE/MALDI-TOF-MS   Cyclophilin A, S100A4, profiling-1, thymosin beta 4, thymosin beta 10, fetuin-A, alpha-1 antitrypsin 1–6, contrapsin, apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein C-1 [31]
Ovarian SELDI-TOF MS Immunodepletion CXC chemokine ligand 1, intact and truncated interleukin 8 [66]
  HPLC fractionation/LC-MS/MS Immunoblot/immunofluorescence 14-3-3 zeta [96]