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Table 1 Distribution of cytokine production by glioma infiltrating microglia from 7 representative human glioma patients. Positive intracellular staining was confirmed for all cytokines by either a reporter cell line (A375).

From: Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients

Pathology IL-1β IL-6 TNF-α
GBM 0% 0% 0%
GBM 0% 0% 0%
GBM 0% 0% 0%
GBM 0% 0% 0%
GBM 0% 0% 0%
AA 0% 0% 0%
AA 0% 0% 0%
Normal 0% 0% 0%
Normal 0% 0% 0%
Normal 0% 2% 0%
A375 58% 3% 5%
  1. Percentages indicate CD11b+CD45+ GIM gated on all CD45+ cells and are adjusted to that of corresponding isotype controls.
  2. Abbreviations: IL, interleukin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; GBM, glioblastoma multiforme; AA, anaplastic astrocytoma.