Expression of γ-H2AX and its correlation with telomere length, stathmin and elongation factor 1α (EF1α) expression in HBV-related multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. A. γ-H2AX labeling index in normal liver (NL), liver cirrhosis (LC), low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDN), high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ‡ Statistical significance (linear trend model, P < 0.05). B. Correlation between γ-H2AX labeling index and telomere length. C-D. Correlation between γ-H2AX labeling index and stathmin mRNA (C) and stathmin protein level (D). E. Correlation between γ-H2AX labeling index and EF1α protein levels (F). *Statistical significance (P < 0.05).