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Table 1 Characteristics of subsets of regulatory T cell (Treg)

From: Subsets of regulatory T cells and their roles in allergy

Subset Specific marker Secretory products Actions Location
nTreg CD4, CD25, Foxp3 IL-10, TGF-β Block T cell proliferation, suppression of DCs, inhibition of effector Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells; eliminate production of allergen-specific IgE, induce IgG4 secretion; suppress mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils; interact with resident tissue cells and participate tissue remodeling [12] Thymus [9]
ICOS(+) Treg CD4, CD25, Foxp3, ICOS IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ Suppress hapten-reactive CD8(+) T cells [15] Generated from nTregs
iTreg CD4, Foxp3 IL-10, TGF-β Similar to nTreg [16] Periphery
Tr1 CD4, CD25 IL-10 Suppress effector Th cell migration and functions [4]; suppress mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils [8] Generated from non-Treg cell precursors and home lungs and draining lymph nodes [18]
CD8(+)Treg CD8, Foxp3, CD25 (not for tonsil origin), CD28 IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, GB Block activation of naive or effector T cells; suppress IgG/IgE antibody responses [9], IL-4 expression and the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells [19]. Generated from OT-1 CD8 cells [9]and tonsils
IL-17-producing Foxp3 (+) Treg CD4, Foxp3,CCR6,RORGTF IL-17 Inhibit the proliferation of CD4(+) effector T cells [10]. Differentiated from CD4(+)Foxp3(+)CCR6(-) Tregs in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue [10]
  1. nTreg = natural regulatory T cell; ICOS = inducible costimulator; iTreg = inducible/adaptive regulatory T cell; Tr1 cell = IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cell; GB = granzyme B; RORGTF = RORgammat transcription factor.