Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 6 Univariate and adjusted-multivariate Cox proportional-hazards estimates for patients with PDAC in the validation dataset

From: Clinical significance of elevated serum soluble CD40 ligand levels as a diagnostic and prognostic tumor marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Univariate analysis HRs 95% CI p -value
Gender (male vs. female) 0.583 0.280-1.211 0.148
Age (≤40, > 40 & ≤60, > 60) 0.649 0.359-1.175 0.154
T-stage (T1, T2, T3 ,T4) 1.428 0.902-2.261 0.129
Node metastasis (N0, N1) 1.960 0.810-4.745 0.136
Distant metastasis (M0, M1) 3.558 1.695-7.469 0.001
Unresectability (resectable vs. unresectable) 2.917 1.025-8.298 0.045
Tumor Size (≤2 cm, > 2 cm & ≤ 5 cm, > 5 cm) 2.419 1.191-4.917 0.015
Histological differentiation (Well, Moderate, Poor; n) 1.154 0.777-1.714 0.478
Karnofsky performance status scale (continuous variable)* 0.962 0.936-0.988 0.005
High-serum CA19-9 (≤40 U/ml vs. > 40 U/ml) 1.811 0.788-4.160 0.162
High-serum CEA (≤3 ng/ml vs. > 3 ng/ml) 2.137 1.062-4.298 0.033
High-serum sCD40L (≤35,000 ng/ml vs. > 35,000 ng/ml) 2.468 1.162-5.242 0.019
Multivariate analysis HRs 95% CI p -value
Distant metastasis (M0, M1) 3.469 1.375-8.749 0.008
Unresectability (resectable vs. unresectable) 0.588 0.168-2.060 0.406
Tumor Size (≤2 cm, > 2 cm & ≤ 5 cm, > 5 cm) 2.454 1.075-5.602 0.033
Karnofsky performance status scale (continuous variable)* 0.969 0.940-0.998 0.038
High-serum CEA (≤3 ng/ml vs. > 3 ng/ml) 1.354 0.549-3.340 0.511
High-serum sCD40L (≤35,000 ng/ml vs. > 35,000 ng/ml) 2.509 1.038-6.067 0.041
  1. HR, hazard ratio of mortality; CI, confidence interval; sCD40L, soluble CD40 ligand; CA19-9, cancer antigen 19–9; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen.
  2. p-value of < 0.05 is considered to be statistically significant.
  3. *This scale was evaluated at diagnosis before treatment start.
  4. Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for other variables by the “enter” method in multivariate Cox analysis.