Signal transduction in CB-MSC in response to HF and control serum. Immunoblot analyses were performed for p38 (A), JNK (B) and ERK1/2 (C) after 5 days of CB-MSC culture in medium supplemented with either human control, HF serum or FCS. Boxplots show expression levels of total or phosphorylated proteins as adjusted band densities normalized to FCS and the calculated phosphorylation status plotted as ratio of phosphorylated-to-total protein for both human serum groups. In response to HF serum, JNK seemed to be transcriptionally upregulated, whereas ERK1/2 phosphorylation was clearly reduced. The boxplots indicate interquartile range (box), median (line), range (whiskers) and outliers (+/−).