The effects of M
-mAChR overexpression on Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. (a, b) M3-mAChR protein and mRNA expression levels were increased in TG-H9c2 cells. TG-H9c2 cell, H9c2 cell line with ectopic expression of M3-mAChR; WT-H9c2 cell, wide type H9c2 cell line. Values were expressed as means ± SEM (n = 3) and normalized to the WT-H9c2 group. *P <0.05 vs. WT-H9c2 group. (c) M3-mAChR overexpression inhibited the increase of cell surface area induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). (d, e) The mRNA expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) in TG-H9c2 cells. Values were expressed as means ± SEM (n = 3) and normalized to the WT-CTRL group, *P <0.05 vs. WT-CTRL group; #P < 0.05 vs. WT-Ang II group.