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Table 7 Summary of the odds ratio test results

From: The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

Variable Scinario-1-Scinario-2 Scinario1-Scinario-3
  95% confidence interval   95% confidence interval
Odds ratio Lower Upper Odds ratio Lower Upper
Accidents 1.333** 1.008 1.776 1.28* 0.961 1.705
Accident(road) 1.226 0.713 2.108 1.319 0.662 2.627
Accident(car) 1.351 0.911 2.002 1.287 0.881 1.880
Accident(pedestrian) 1.289 0.634 2.621 1.195 0.607 2.351
Exceeding the speed limit 0.907 .741 1.109 0.964 0.789 1.178
Total number of traffic light tickets 1.653 0.906 3.016 1.502 0.734 3.075
Centerline crossings 0.944 0.752 1.185 1.306** 1.016 1.679
Shoulder crossings 0.867 0.678 1.110 1.001 0.758 1.322
Exceeding the speed limit (%time) 0.850 0.715 1.011 0.996 0.832 1.192
Not being within the lane (%time) 0.949 0.757 1.190 1.329** 1.025 1.722
  1. **. Significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
  2. *. Significant at the 0.1 level (2-tailed).
  3. Table 7 Presents the odds ratio and the confidence interval. The odds ratio is a way of comparing whether the probabilities of the certain driving behavioral measures are the same for the two groups (the experimental and the control). An odds ratio of 1 implies that the event is equally likely in both groups. An odds ratio greater than one implies that the event is more likely in the first group, whereas an odds ratio less than one implies that the event is less likely in this group. Upon comparing driving behavior before smoking a Water-Pipe and immediately after it, one can see from Table 7 that there is a significant increase in the total number of traffic accidents and the estimated OR is 1.333 with CI of 1.008–1.776 and it is statistically significant because the confidence interval did not include 1. The meaning of these results is that smoking Water-Pipe significantly increased the total number of traffic crashes by 33%. Furthermore, immediately following the smoking of a Water-Pipe, an increase in the number of the total number of traffic light tickets is found, but it is statistically significant at 0.1 and not at 0.05. The increase in measures, involvement in traffic crashes and the total number of traffic light violations indicate the risky driving of Water-Pipe smokers after having smoked a Water-Pipe.