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Table 5 Differences in driving behavior prior to WPS and immediately following it

From: The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

Before smoking- Immediately after smoking Pairs:scinario1-scinario2 Paired Differences t Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Std. Deviation 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Control group Accident(road) .60 2.16 −.21 1.41 1.52 .14
Accident(car) .60 2.74 −.42 1.62 1.20 .24
Accident(pedestrian) .87 .97 .50 1.23 4.88 .00
Exceeding speed limit −.03 4.84 −1.84 1.77 −.04 .97
Total number of traffic light tickets .57 1.01 .19 .94 3.08 .00
Centerline crossings −2.07 6.67 −4.56 .42 −1.70 .10
Shoulder crossings .80 4.22 −.78 2.38 1.04 .31
Total time 54.66 204.83 −21.83 131.14 1.46 .15
Total distance 145.63 1152.29 −284.64 575.91 .69 .49
Exceeding the speed limit (%time) −3.12 9.60 −6.71 .47 −1.78 .09
Not within the lane (%time) −1.22 5.03 −3.09 .66 −1.32 .20
Experimental group Accident(road) .46 2.11 −.04 .97 1.82 .07
Accident(car) −.07 3.08 −.81 .67 −.20 .85
Accident(pedestrian) .74 1.05 .49 .99 5.83 .00
Over speed limit .94 6.06 −.51 2.40 1.29 .20
Total number of traffic light tickets .09 1.29 −.22 .40 .57 .57
Centerline crossings −1.94 6.77 −3.57 −.31 −2.38 .02
Shoulder crossings 1.86 5.74 .48 3.23 2.69 .01
Total time 10.96 98.15 −12.62 34.54 .93 .36
Total distance −104.06 621.30 −253.31 45.20 −1.39 .17
Exceeding the speed limit (%time) −43.15 343.53 −125.68 39.37 −1.04 .30
Not within the lane (%time) −.94 6.62 −2.53 .65 −1.17 .24
  1. Tables 5 Presents the mean differences for the driving measures between the first scenario and the second scenarios (prior to Water-Pipe smoking and immediately following it) and between the first and third scenarios (prior to smoking a Water-Pipe and half an hour following it), respectively. From Table 5, one can see that there is an insignificant decrease in the number of road crashes immediately following Water-Pipe smoking in both the experimental and control groups, although the decrease in the control group is higher. In the experimental group, an insignificant increase in the number of car crashes was observed, but in contrast, the control group experienced a decrease. For both groups, a significant decrease in the number of pedestrian accidents was observed, but the decrease within the control group was greater than within the experimental group. In the latter group, there occurred a significant decrease in the total number of traffic light violations, while in the control group, a statistically significant decrease was observed (t = 3.08, p < 0.05).