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Table 2 The mean of the participants’ pulse rates in given WPS scenarios and non smoker controls

From: The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah) transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

Sample Scenario Variable Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Experimental group Before smoking Pulse-1 80.23 13.93 1.677
Immediately after smoking Pulse-2 94.90 15.38 1.851
Half hour after smoking Pulse-3 87.18 14.39 2.036
Before smoking Saturation-1 97.90 .60 .072
Immediately after smoking Saturation- 2 97.32 1.55 .186
Half an hour after smoking Saturation −3 97.38 1.05 .148
Control group Before exam Pulse-1 82.50 11.25 2.055
Immediately after experimental group exam Pulse-2 80.90 9.64 1.761
Half an hour after experimental group exam Pulse-3 80.08 10.77 3.11
Before exam Saturation-1 97.57 .94 .171
Immediately after experimental group exam Saturation −2 97.63 .96 .176
  Half an hour after experimental group exam Saturation-3 97.75 .45 .131
  1. Table 2 Presents the mean of the pulse rate and the level of blood oxygenation (saturation rate) in the three scenarios: prior to smoking a Water-Pipe, immediately following smoking and half an hour subsequent to WPS in experimental group comparing to non smokers control group. In the experimental group, immediately following WPS, a statistically significant increase (Table 3) in the pulse rate was observed - from 80 to 95 (t = 11.84, p < 0.05), while in the control group a significant decrease in the pulse rate was observed - from 83 to 81. Other important results is that in the experimental group - even half an hour after Water-Pipe smoking, the pulse rate continues to be higher than that prior to Water-Pipe smoking, and the difference between the two scenarios is statistically significant (t = 5.54, p < 0.05). While in the control group, no significant change in the pulse rate was observed. In the experimental group immediately following WPS, the saturation level decreased from 97.9 to 97.32, and the decrease is statistically significant (t = 3.01, p < 0.05); while in the control group, the no significant change in the saturation rate was observed. Furthermore, in the experimental group, half an hour after WPS, the saturation rate continued to be higher than that prior to WPS and the difference is statistically significant (t = 3.02), while in the control group, no change in the saturation rate was observed half an hour subsequent to experimental group smoking a Water-Pipe.