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Table 3 Association between dietary fiber intake and CVD mortality

From: Associations between dietary fiber intake and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer: a prospective study

Variables Median (g/day) Cohort (n) Cases (n) Crude HR (95% CI), p-value Adjusted HR* (95% CI), p-value
Total
 Q1 (< 11.12) 8.83 17,360 1044 Reference Reference
 Q2 (≥ 11.12 to < 14.71) 12.95 17,330 987 0.91 (0.84–1.00), p = 0.044 0.91 (0.84–1.00), p = 0.046
 Q3 (≥ 14.71 to < 18.41) 16.48 17,322 931 0.84 (0.77–0.92), p < 0.001 0.83 (0.76–0.92), p < 0.001
 Q4 (≥ 18.41 to < 23.75) 20.74 17,304 913 0.82 (0.75–0.89), p < 0.001 0.78 (0.70–0.86), p < 0.001
 Q5 (≥ 23.75) 28.75 17,326 967 0.85 (0.78–0.93), p < 0.001 0.73 (0.65–0.83), p < 0.001
     p for trend < 0.001 p for trend < 0.001
Insoluble
 Q1 (< 7.21) 5.7 17,366 1055 Reference Reference
 Q2 (≥ 7.21 to < 9.63) 8.44 17,342 1003 0.92 (0.84–1.00), p = 0.056 0.92 (0.84–1.00), p = 0.063
 Q3 (≥ 9.63 to < 12.11) 10.8 17,312 920 0.82 (0.75–0.90), p < 0.001 0.82 (0.75–0.90), p < 0.001
 Q4 (≥ 12.11 to < 15.73) 13.69 17,332 899 0.79 (0.73–0.87), p < 0.001 0.76 (0.69–0.84), p < 0.001
 Q5 (≥ 15.73) 19.09 17,290 965 0.84 (0.77–0.92), p < 0.001 0.72 (0.65–0.81), p < 0.001
     p for trend < 0.001 p for trend < 0.001
Soluble fiber
 Q1 (< 3.72) 2.97 17,395 1059 Reference Reference
 Q2 (≥ 3.72 to < 4.91) 4.32 17,304 930 0.85 (0.78–0.93), p < 0.001 0.87 (0.79–0.95), p = 0.002
 Q3 (≥ 4.91 to < 6.15) 5.49 17,351 945 0.85 (0.78–0.93), p < 0.001 0.85 (0.77–0.93), p = 0.001
 Q4 (≥ 6.15 to < 7.92) 6.91 17,266 914 0.81 (0.74–0.88), p < 0.001 0.78 (0.71–0.86), p < 0.001
 Q5 (≥ 7.92) 9.62 17,326 994 0.88 (0.80–0.96), p = 0.003 0.78 (0.69–0.88), p < 0.001
     p for trend = 0.011 p for trend < 0.001
  1. *Adjusted for age (continuous), sex (male vs. female), race (non-Hispanic White vs. Other), body mass index (BMI, < 25.0 kg/m2 vs. ≥ 25.0 kg/m2), education (≤ high school vs. ≥ some college), smoking status (never vs. former ≤ 15 years since quit vs. former > 15 years since quit vs. former year since quit unknown vs. current smoker ≤ 1 pack per day vs. current smoker > 1 pack per day vs. current smoker intensity unknown), marital status (married vs. not married), alcohol drinking status (never vs. former vs. current), and total energy intake (continuous)