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Table 5 The role of exosomes in SCI and TBI

From: Role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diseases

Source of exosomes Intermediate molecule Downstream pathway or molecule Function Refs.
SCI
 Neuron miR-124-3p MYH9, PI3K/AKT/NF-κB Suppressing the activation of neurotoxic microglia and astrocytes [113]
 MSC miR-25 NA Protecting the spinal cord from transient ischemia [114]
 MSC miR-21 / miR-19b NA Promoting recovery [117]
 NA miR-133b NA Protecting neurons, promoting axon regeneration, and the recovery of motor function [118]
TBI
 NA miR-124 NA Promoting the evolution of microglia M2 [122]
 Microglia miR-124-3p NA Inhibiting neuronal autophagy [123]
 NA Tau protein, phosphorylated tau protein NA Aggravating the motor and cognitive damage [126]
  1. 'NA' means no accessible data in the study
  2. MSC, mesenchymal stem cells; SCI, spinal cord injury; TBI, traumatic brain injury