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Table 2 Mechanisms of exosomal neuroprotection

From: Role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diseases

Source of exosomes

Intermediate molecule

Downstream pathway or molecule

Models or cells

Effect on downstream pathway

Refs.

MSC

NA

NA

focal cerebral ischemia

NA

[42]

Adipose-derived MSCs

miR-25-3p

Autophagy

NA

[44]

Endothelial progenitor cell

miR-137

COX2/PGE2

Oxyhemoglobin-treated SH-SY5Y cells

NA

[45]

M2 microglia

miR-124

USP14

OGD

NA

[46]

OGD preconditioned astrocytes

miR-92b-3p

NA

OGD

NA

[49]

IPAS

circSHOC2

miR-7670-3p/SIRT1

MCAO

NA

[52]

Astrocyte

microRNA-34c

TLR7, NF-κB/MAPK

I/R injury

NA

[53]

  1. 'NA' means no accessible data in the study.
  2. MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; OGD, oxygen–glucose deprivation; IPAS, ischemic-preconditioned astrocyte; MCAO, middle cerebral artery occlusion; I/R, ischemia/reperfusion
  3. ' + ' represents the promotion of downstream pathway or molecule; '–' represents the inhibition of downstream pathway or molecule;