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Table 2 Mechanisms of exosomal neuroprotection

From: Role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diseases

Source of exosomes Intermediate molecule Downstream pathway or molecule Models or cells Effect on downstream pathway Refs.
MSC NA NA focal cerebral ischemia NA [42]
Adipose-derived MSCs miR-25-3p Autophagy NA [44]
Endothelial progenitor cell miR-137 COX2/PGE2 Oxyhemoglobin-treated SH-SY5Y cells NA [45]
M2 microglia miR-124 USP14 OGD NA [46]
OGD preconditioned astrocytes miR-92b-3p NA OGD NA [49]
IPAS circSHOC2 miR-7670-3p/SIRT1 MCAO NA [52]
Astrocyte microRNA-34c TLR7, NF-κB/MAPK I/R injury NA [53]
  1. 'NA' means no accessible data in the study.
  2. MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; OGD, oxygen–glucose deprivation; IPAS, ischemic-preconditioned astrocyte; MCAO, middle cerebral artery occlusion; I/R, ischemia/reperfusion
  3. ' + ' represents the promotion of downstream pathway or molecule; '–' represents the inhibition of downstream pathway or molecule;