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Table 1 Mechanisms of exosomes promoting angiogenesis

From: Role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diseases

Source of exosomes Intermediate molecule Downstream pathway or molecule Models or cells Effect on downstream pathway Refs.
Endothelial cell miR-214 ATM Endothelial cells [29]
Adipose-derived MSCs miR-125a DLL4 Endothelial cells [30]
Human umbilical cord derived MSC NA Wnt4/β-catenin NA  +  [31]
Bone marrow derived MSCs pSTAT3 NF-κB NA  +  [32, 33]
Human term PlaMSCs NA Angiogenesis-related gene In vivo murine auricle ischemic injury model  +  [34]
Human UCB miR-21-3p NA Fibroblasts, endothelial cells NA [36]
Induced vascular progenitor cells NA NA Rat hindlimb ischemia model NA [37]
Human EPC NA NA H/R induction NA [38]
Hypoxic-induced MSC NA NA NA NA [39, 40]
  1. 'NA' means no accessible data in the study.
  2. ATM, ataxia telangiectasia mutated; MSCs, mesenchymal stem cell; DLL4, Delta-like ligand4; PlaMSCs, placental tissue-derived MSCs; UCB, umbilical cord blood; EPC, endothelial progenitor cell; H/R, hypoxia/reoxygenation
  3. ' + ' represents the promotion of downstream pathway or molecule; '–' represents the inhibition of downstream pathway or molecule;