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Table 1 Summary of in vivo results showing the Exos-based periodontitis treatment strategy used over the past 5 years

From: Advances of exosomes in periodontitis treatment

Source of Exos Study model Route of delivery Dose Duration Outcomes References
MSCs Mouse experimental periodontitis model Locally injection 50 μg per mouse 14 days Improve the treatment by restoring the Th17 cell/Treg balance through the miR-1246/Nfat5 axis [46]
DPSCs Mouse experimental periodontitis model Incorporated chitosan hydrogel 50 μg 4 weeks Facilitate macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype and promote alveolar bone healing [47]
HHH-DPSCs Mouse experimental periodontitis model Directly applied onto the silk ligature 5 μL containing 7.5 × 108 particles 7 days Promote the migration of both DPCs and osteoblastic cells; suppress osteoclast formation [48]
PDLSCs Rat periodontal bone defect model Mixed with Matrigel Exos (225 μg/μL): Matrigel = 2:1 (v/v) 4 weeks Suppress overactivation Wnt signaling, recover osteogenic differentiation capacity of inflammatory PDLSCs [49]
TNF-α-treated human GMSCs Mouse experimental periodontitis model Locally injection 20 μg per mouse 7 days Regulate inflammation and osteoclastogenesis [50]
SHED Mouse experimental periodontitis model Locally injection 20 μg 2 weeks Restore bone loss, promote BMSCs osteogenesis, differentiation, and bone formation [51]
SHED Rat periodontal defect models h β-TCP scaffffolds loaded with Exos 2 μg/μL Exos in 100 μL PBS 4 weeks Contribute to periodontal bone regeneration through the AMPK signaling pathway [52]
induced M2-like macrophages Mouse experimental periodontitis model Locally injection 30 μL (500 ng/ml) 2 weeks Reduce alveolar bone resorption in mice with periodontitis via IL-10/IL-10R pathway [53]
ADSCs Rat experimental periodontitis model Locally injection 80–150 µg in 200 µL PBS 4 weeks Represent a promising adjunctive treatment to SRP [54]
salivary Exos Insulin resistance-associated mouse experimental periodontitis model Locally injection miR-25-3p inhibitors (100 μl of 8 nM) 9 days Exosomal miR-25-3p in saliva contribute to development and progression of diabetes-associated periodontitis [55]