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Table 1 Comparison of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) with and without tonic signaling

From: Exhaustion of CAR T cells: potential causes and solutions

Antigen CD19 c-Met GD2
CAR construct Second-generation with CD28 Second-generation with CD28 Second-generation with CD28
Ex vivo proliferation  ~ 2 weeks without stimulation Continuous without stimulation Poor
Ex vivo killing activity Good Good Good
IL-2 expression Moderate Increased Defective
Ex vivo exhaustion No Upregulation of T-bet and EOMES Upregulation of inhibitory molecules such as PD-1, LAG3 and TIM-3
In vivo persistence Good Poor Poor
Reference [33] [27] [9]
  1. The characteristics of three types of CARs are compared. c-Met and GD2 CARs show tonic signaling, while CD19 CAR does not. Note that although c-Met and GD2 CARs show opposite phenotypes in some properties, they both indicate exhaustion to various extents