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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population by the number of CMDs

From: Cardiometabolic diseases, total mortality, and benefits of adherence to a healthy lifestyle: a 13-year prospective UK Biobank study

Characteristics Total (N = 356,967) Number of CMDs
No (323,339) One (29,859) Two (3,571) Three (198)
Age (mean, SD) 56.1 (8.1) 55.6 (8.1) 60.3 (6.9) 62.1 (5.8) 62.4 (6.0)
Female 187,615 (52.6) 176,147 (54.5) 10,545 (35.3) 890 (25.0) 46 (23.2)
Townsend deprivation index (mean, SD) − 1.4 (3.0) − 1.5 (3.0) − 0.9 (3.3) − 0.325 (3.5) 0.4 (3.6)
Ethnicity
 White 337,288 (94.5) 306,630 (94.8) 27,295 (91.4) 3,195 (89.5) 168 (84.8)
 Mixed background 2,147 (0.6) 1,984 (0.6) 145 (0.5) 13 (0.4) 5 (2.5)
 Asian or Asian British 6,554 (1.8) 5,154 (1.6) 1,165 (3.9) 223 (6.2) 12 (6.1)
 Black or black British 5694 (1.6) 4,902 (1.5) 713 (2.4) 77 (2.2) 2 (1.0)
 Chinese 1116 (0.3) 1,035 (0.3) 77 (0.3) 4 (0.1) 0 (0.0)
 Others 3101 (0.9) 2,693 (0.8) 354 (1.2) 47 (1.3) 7 (3.5)
 Missing 1067 (0.3) 941 (0.3) 110 (0.4) 12 (0.3) 4 (2.0)
Employment
 Working 213,316 (59.8) 200,608 (62.0) 11,756 (39.4) 922 (25.8) 30 (15.1)
 Retired 114,442 (32.1) 97,421 (30.1) 14,884 (49.8) 2,021 (56.6) 116 (58.6)
 Unemployed 23,557 (6.6) 20,138 (6.2) 2,793 (9.3) 580 (16.2) 46 (23.2)
 Other 5,652 (1.6) 5,172 (1.6) 426 (1.4) 48 (1.3) 6 (3.0)
Qualifications
 College degree 125,987 (35.3) 117,544 (36.3) 7,691 (25.8) 706 (19.8) 46 (23.2)
 A levels/AS levels 41,269 (11.6) 38,078 (11.8) 2,879 (9.6) 299 (8.4) 14 (7.1)
 O levels/GCESs 74,858 (21.0) 68,355 (21.1) 5,794 (19.4) 677 (19.0) 32 (16.2)
 CSEs 19,135 (5.4) 17,688 (5.5) 1,300 (4.3) 142 (4.0) 5 (2.5)
 NVQ or HND or HNC 23,648 (6.6) 20,602 (6.4) 2,640 (8.8) 393 (11.0) 13 (6.6)
 Other 18,314 (5.1) 16,260 (5.0) 1,835 (6.1) 209 (5.89) 10 (5.0)
 None of the above 51,036 (14.3) 42,518 (13.1) 7,359 (24.6) 1,085 (30.4) 74 (37.4)
 Missing 2.720 (0.8) 2294 (0.7) 362 (1.2) 60 (1.7) 4 (2.0)
 Cholesterol (mmol/L; mean, SD) 5.7 (1.1) 5.8 (1.0) 4.7 (1.1) 4.4 (1.0) 4.4 (1.1)
 C-reactive protein (mg/L; mean, SD) 2.4 (3.9) 2.3 (3.8) 2.8 (4.6) 3.3 (5.2) 3.4 (4.6)
Triglycerides (mmol/L; mean, SD) 1.7 (1.0) 1.7 (1.0) 1.9 (1.1) 2.1 (1.2) 2.2 (1.4)
Lifestyle factors
 Healthy diet 224,192 (62.8) 203,894 (63.1) 18,127 (60.7) 2075 (58.1) 96 (48.5)
 Regular physical activity 220,888 (61.9) 200,856 (62.1) 17,873 (59.9) 2049 (57.4) 110 (55.6)
 Non-smoker 322,200 (90.3) 292,178 (90.4) 26,720 (89.5) 3134 (87.8) 168 (84.8)
 BMI < 30 kg/m2 277,672 (77.8) 257,756 (79.7) 18,099 (60.6) 1,736 (48.6) 81 (40.9)
  1. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise
  2. BMI, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); CSE, Certificate of Secondary Education; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; HNC, Higher National Certificate; HND, Higher National Diploma; NVQ, National Vocational Qualification; SD, standard deviation