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Table 3 eGFR among patients receiving high-oral protein loading, compared to that in patients receiving standard care prior to cardiac surgery

From: Effects of preoperative high-oral protein loading on short- and long-term renal outcomes following cardiac surgery: a cohort study

  Control group Protein-loading group Difference
(protein load vs. control)
p-value (unadjusted) p-value (adjusted)b
(a) eGFR values (in mL/min/1.73 m2)a
 3 months      
  All patients (n = 323) 86 (84–88) 90 (87–93) 3.9 (0.42–7.3] 0.028 0.017
  No AKI (n = 283) 87 (85–89) 91 [89–94) 4.6 (1.1–8.1) 0.011 0.005
  AKI (n = 40) 80 (73–87) 79 (69–89) 0.0 (− 13 to 12) 0.936 0.619
  Reversal (n
 = 35)
83 (75–91) 79 (70–89)  − 3.8 (− 16 to 8.7) 0.538 0.323
  Non-reversal 66 (47–84)  
12 months      
  All patients (n = 321) 79 (77–81) 87 (84–90) 7.8 (4.5–11)  < 0.001  < 0.001
  No AKI (n = 283) 81 (79–83) 89 (86–91) 7.9 (4.6–11)  < 0.001  < 0.001
  AKI (n = 38) 65 (58–72) 75 (66–84) 9.6 (− 1.7 to 21) 0.093 0.619
  Reversalc (n
 = 34)
69 (62–76) 75 (67–83) 5.8 (− 4.9 to 17) 0.280 0.316
  Non-reversal 46 (19–73]  
(b) Change in eGFR (in mL/min/1.73 m2)a relative to the preoperative values
 3 months      
  All patients (n = 323)  − 3.3 (− 4.4 to  − 2.2) 0.15 (− 1.4 to 1.7) 3.5 (1.6 to 5.4)  < 0.001  < 0.001
  No AKI (n = 283)  − 3.2 (− 4.3 to − 2.1) 0.68 (− 0.87 to 2.2] 3.9 (2.0 to 5.8)  < 0.001  < 0.001
  AKI (n = 40)  − 4.2 (− 8.7– 0.44) − 3.5 (− 9.8 to 2.8) 0.65 (− 7.1 to 8.4) 0.865 0.817
  Reversalc (n
 = 35)
 − 1.5 (− 6.2 to 3.2) − 3.5 (− 9.3 to 2.3)  − 2.0 (− 9.4 to 5.5) 0.594 0.764
  Non-reversal  − 15 (− 30 to − 0.2)  
 12 months      
  All patients (n = 321)  − 10 (− 11 to − 9.1)  − 2.7 (− 4.2 to  − 1.2) 7.5 (5.6 to 9.4)  < 0.001  < 0.001
  No AKI (n = 283)  − 9.1 (− 10 to − 8.1)  − 1.9 (− 3.4 to  − 0.52) 7.2 (5.4 to 8.9)  < 0.001  < 0.001
  AKI (n = 38)  − 19 (− 23 to − 14)  − 8 (− 14 to  − 1.9] 11 (3 to 18) 0.008 0.011
  Reversalc (n
 = 34)
 − 15 (− 19 to − 11)  − 8 (− 13 to − 3.2) 7.3 (1.1 to 14) 0.022 0.028
  Non-reversal  − 35 (− 61 to  − 9.1)  
  1. Summaries of quantitative variables are presented as mean and 95% confidence interval (in brackets)
  2. AKI acute kidney injury; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  3. aThe eGFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation [15]
  4. bP-values were taken from linear models, including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes as covariables
  5. cReversal after AKI was defined as the absence of any stage of AKI based on either the serum creatinine or urine output criteria at hospital discharge [22]