Skip to main content

Table 4 The subgroup analysis of estimating the prevalence rate of OD based on the continents, diagnostic tool, and study population

From: The global prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in different populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups Number of articles Sample size I2 Begg and Mazumdar Prevalence % (95% CI)
Continents
 Asia 2 227 96.82 24.7 (95% CI 12.1–43.7)
 Europe 17 1777 98.12 0.433 45.7 (95% CI 33.3–58.5)
 America 6 1446 96.90 0.452 51.3 (95% CI 31.7–70.6)
 African 1 81 0.000 64.2 (95% CI 53.2–73.9)
 Australia 1 2973 0.000 7.3 (95% CI 6.4–8.3)
Diagnostic tools
 Physical examination 12 6089 98.69 0.243 40.9 (95% CI 26.3–57.3)
 Volume–viscosity swallow test 10 1273 97.76 1.000 54.4 (95% CI 39.2–68.8)
 Swallow questionnaire 3 255 97.21 1.000 20.4 (95% CI 9.6–38.4)
Population
 Children 2 192 81.10 72.3 (95% CI 55.5–84.6)
 Adults 8 4816 98.69 0.386 32.6 (95% CI 17.7–52.0)
 Elderly 11 1400 98.56 0.119 48.1 (95% CI 31.9–64.7)
 General population 3 4149 99.25 1.000 13.4 (95% CI 4.4–34.5)
 Pneumonia 2 288 91.92 44.6 (95% CI 25.8–65.0)
 Dementia 3 1080 99.10 1.000 72.4 (95% CI 26.7–95.0)
 Head and neck cancer 2 587 97.60 31.5 (95% CI 8.9–68.4)
 Stroke 5 875 94.96 0.806 55.4 (95% CI 37.2–72.2)
Gender
 Male 11 1141 94.36 0.161 54.7 (95% CI 40.1–68.6)
 Female 11 1667 97.00 0.876 46.5 (95% CI 31.3–62.5)