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Table 4 The subgroup analysis of estimating the prevalence rate of OD based on the continents, diagnostic tool, and study population

From: The global prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in different populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups

Number of articles

Sample size

I2

Begg and Mazumdar

Prevalence % (95% CI)

Continents

 Asia

2

227

96.82

24.7 (95% CI 12.1–43.7)

 Europe

17

1777

98.12

0.433

45.7 (95% CI 33.3–58.5)

 America

6

1446

96.90

0.452

51.3 (95% CI 31.7–70.6)

 African

1

81

0.000

64.2 (95% CI 53.2–73.9)

 Australia

1

2973

0.000

7.3 (95% CI 6.4–8.3)

Diagnostic tools

 Physical examination

12

6089

98.69

0.243

40.9 (95% CI 26.3–57.3)

 Volume–viscosity swallow test

10

1273

97.76

1.000

54.4 (95% CI 39.2–68.8)

 Swallow questionnaire

3

255

97.21

1.000

20.4 (95% CI 9.6–38.4)

Population

 Children

2

192

81.10

72.3 (95% CI 55.5–84.6)

 Adults

8

4816

98.69

0.386

32.6 (95% CI 17.7–52.0)

 Elderly

11

1400

98.56

0.119

48.1 (95% CI 31.9–64.7)

 General population

3

4149

99.25

1.000

13.4 (95% CI 4.4–34.5)

 Pneumonia

2

288

91.92

44.6 (95% CI 25.8–65.0)

 Dementia

3

1080

99.10

1.000

72.4 (95% CI 26.7–95.0)

 Head and neck cancer

2

587

97.60

31.5 (95% CI 8.9–68.4)

 Stroke

5

875

94.96

0.806

55.4 (95% CI 37.2–72.2)

Gender

 Male

11

1141

94.36

0.161

54.7 (95% CI 40.1–68.6)

 Female

11

1667

97.00

0.876

46.5 (95% CI 31.3–62.5)