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Table 2 The characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

From: The global prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in different populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year, (References) Country (continent) Sample size (n) Age (year) Type of study Diagnostic tool Prevalence (%) Population Quality score
Total Male Female Total Male Female
Wolf, 2020, [23] Germany (Europe) 200 69 131 84 ± 6.5 Cross-sectional retrospective Physical examination 29.0 Elderly 9
Ruth, 1991, [24] Sweden (Europe) 337 20–79 Cross-sectional Physical examination 10.0 General population 4
Cabre, 2010, [25] Spain (Europe) 134 80 54 84.51 ± 6.8 Prospective cohort Physical examination 55.0 Elderly patients with pneumonia 5
Melgaard, 2017, [26] Denmark (Europe) 154 84 70 80.90 ± 10.58 Cross-sectional observational Volume–viscosity swallow test 34.42 47.61 17.14 Elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia 7
Michel, 2018, [27] France (Europe) 117 40 77 84.5 ± 5.1 Prospective study Volume–viscosity swallow test 86.6 95.0 81.81 Older patients with dementia 7
Elvira, 2020, [28] Spain (Europe) 255 98 157 83.5 ± 8 Prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental Volume–viscosity swallow test 85.9 85.35 61.2 Older patients with dementia 8
Holland, 2011, [29] UK (Europe) 637 149 488 89 (69–98) Longitudinal study Swallow questionnaire 11.4 Elderly 5
Garcı´a-Peris, 2007, [30] Spain (Europe) 87 58.2 ± 13.5 Cross-sectional retrospective Physical examination 50.6 Head and neck cancer 8
Rofes, 2018, [31] Spain (Europe) 395 211 184 73.2 ± 13.3 Cohort Volume–viscosity swallow test 45.06 38.86 52.2 Stroke 7
Mateos-Nozal, 2020, [32] Spain (Europe) 329 104 225 93.5 (81–106) Observational prospective Volume–viscosity swallow test 82.4 87.5 70.8 Elderly 8
Falsetti, 2009, [33] Italy (Europe) 151 77 74 79.4 ± 6.2 Cross-sectional retrospective Volume–viscosity swallow test 26.5 40.25 12.16 Stroke 4
Lendinez-Mesa, 2017, [34] Spain (Europe) 124 88 36 56.45 ± 12.35 Cross-sectional Physical examination 79.3 Stroke 6
Serra-Prat, 2012, [35] Spain (Europe) 254 136 118 77.4 ± 5.0 Population-based prospective study Volume–viscosity swallow test 18.6 9.5 28.8 Elderly 6
Hamdy, 2014, [36] UK (Europe) 180 93 87 74.2 ± 11.5 Cross-sectional Volume–viscosity swallow test 41.7 Stroke 4
Stefano, 2020, [37] Italy (Europe) 708 367 341 75.9 ± 8.6 Cross-sectional retrospective Physical examination 32.7 Older patients with dementia 7
Melgaard, 2018, [38] Denmark (Europe) 313 138 175 83.1 ± 7.8 Cross-sectional observational Volume–viscosity swallow test 50.0 52.17 48.0 Acute Geriatric Patients 8
Lindh, 2017, [39] Sweden (Europe) 51 48.3 ± 6.3 Observational prospective Physical examination 49.0 COPD 7
David, 2008, [21] Australia (Australia) 2973 49.4 (15–95) Population-based prospective study Physical examination 7.3 General population 6
Yang, 2013, [40] Korea (Asia) 415 195 220 77.3 ± 8.7 Cohort Swallow questionnaire 33.7 39.5 28.6 Elderly 7
Biglary, 2019, [41] Iran (Asia) 500 48.1 ± 7.5 Cross-sectional study was a descriptive-analytic study Physical examination 17.39 Neurological diseases and head and neck surgery 5
Costa, 2019, [42] South African (African) 81 11.7 ± 15.6 day Prospective cross-sectional observational Clinical feeding assessments 64.2 Neonates 7
Chiocca, 2005, [43] Argentina (America) 839 373 466 39.9 ± 15.4 Cross-Sectional Observational Physical examination 29.6 General population 7
Jacinto-Scudeiro, 2019, [44] Brasil (America) 36 6 30 34.7 ± 16.8 Cross-sectional Swallow questionnaire 33.0 Paraplegia 5
Delevatti, 2020, [45] Brasil (America) 229 49 180 77.90 ± 8.21 Cross-sectional Volume–viscosity swallow test 58.0 49.0 60.5 Older adults with orthopedic fractures 6
Almeida, 2015, [22] Brasil (America) 25 62 (44–80) Descriptive retrospective Physical examination 96.0 Stroke 4
Samantha, 2015, [46] Colorado (America) 206 9 187 32 (23–47) Large retrospective review Swallow questionnaire 20.38 44.44 20.32 Patients with severe anorexia nervosa 5
Benfer, 2018, [47] USA (America) 111 82 29 34.1 ± 11.9 month Longitudinal population-based cohort Physical examination 79.7 Children with cerebral palsy 5