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Table 3 Probiotics administration for the management of CRC patients

From: Gut microbiota modulation: a tool for the management of colorectal cancer

# of patients Intervention Duration Outcome Refs.
27 6 viable microorganisms of Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria Twice daily 107 mg (orally) probiotics for 6 months Reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17C and IL-22 [112]
57 2 mg Enterococcus faecalis T110, 10 mg Clostridium butyricum TO-A, and 10 mg Bacillus mesentericus TO-A Daily (six tablets/day) for 15 days Reduced the incidence of post-operative complications, including superficial incisional infections, time of meal intake, and time of flatus [113]
8 1.4 × 1010 CFUs Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04, 7 × 109 CFUs Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and 0.63 g inulin Daily (two tablets/day) 8–78 days - Increased bacterial diversity
- Increased the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, including Faecalibacterium and Clostridiales spp
- Reduced CRC-associated genera, including Fusobacterium and
Peptostreptococcus
[114]
84 Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (1.75 × 109 cfu), Lactobacillus plantarum (0.5 × 109 cfu), Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (1.75 × 109 cfu), and Saccharomyces boulardii (1.5 × 109 cfu) One day before operation and continuing for another 15 days post-operatively - Decreased the rate of all postoperative major complications, including pneumonia, anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infections
- Shortened the time until hospital discharge
[115]
98 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation (twice daily at a dose of 1–2 × 1010) and fiber (11 g guar gum per day) during chemotherapy For 24 weeks Reduced the frequency of diarrhea and abdominal discomfort [116]
70 6 viable microorganisms of Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria plus omega-3 fatty acid at a dose of 2 g - Probiotics for 4 weeks
- Omega-3 fatty acid for 8 weeks
- Improved the overall quality of life
- Alleviated certain side effects of chemotherapy
- Reduced inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-6
[117]
28 2 × 109 cfu Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus acidophilus
R0052
For 12 weeks - Decreased irritable bowel symptoms
- Improved cancer-related quality of life
[118]