Skip to main content

Table 1 Different cell types in the adult human endocrine pancreatic islet and their characteristics

From: β-cell mitochondria in diabetes mellitus: a missing puzzle piece in the generation of hPSC-derived pancreatic β-cells?

  Cell types
α-cells β-cells δ-cells γ-cells ε cells
Hormone secreted Glucagon Insulin Somatostatin Pancreatic polypeptide Ghrelin
Molecular weight (kDa) 3.5 5.8 1.5 4.2 3.4
Amino acids 29 51 14 36 28
Half-life (min) 8–18 15 1–3 6–7 27–31
Volume % (adult) 30–45 55–75 < 10 < 10 < 1
Specific transcription factors Nkx2.2, Arx, MafB, Pdx1, Nkx6.1, MafA, MafB Pax4, Pdx1, Nkx2.2, Arx, ?
  1. Pdx1 pancreatic duodenal homeobox gene 1, Nkx2.2 NK class of homeodomain-encoding genes 2.2, Nkx6.1 NK class of homeodomain-encoding genes 6.1, MafA V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein A, MafB V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B, Arx aristaless paired-class homeobox gene, Pax4 paired homeodomain factor 4, ?: not determined yet