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Table 1 Immunotherapy approaches in anti-myeloma treatments

From: B-cell maturation antigen targeting strategies in multiple myeloma treatment, advantages and disadvantages

Technology Targeted molecule Introduced drug Mechanism of action References
Mono-clonal antibody-based technologies Anti-CD38 Daratumumab ADCC, ADCP, CDC [62]
Isatoximab ADCC, ADCP, CDC, Pro-apoptosis [62]
Anti-SLAMF7 Elotuzumab ADCC via NK cell activation through EAT-2 and CD16 [93]
Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) Anti-BCMA Belantamab mafodotin (GSK-2857916) Humanized anti-BCMA IgG1 MoA conjugated to monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF) [36, 37]
Anti-CD138 Indatuximab ravtansine Targeting CD138, linked with maytansinoid cytotoxic agent [38]
Anti-CD56 Lorvotuzumab-mertansine Targeting CD56, linked to a microtubule inhibitor (MD1) [40]
Anti-CD74 Milatuzumab
doxorubicin
Targeting the CD74 linked to doxorubicin [8]
Bispecific monoclonal antibodies (Bs mAbs) CD19/CD3 Blinatumomab Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to CD19 + cells [106]
BCMA/CD3 AMG-420 Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to BCMA + cells [104]
BCMA/CD3 AMG-701 Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to BCMA + cells with extended serum half-life in compared with AMG-420 [108]
BCMA/CD3 teclistamab (JNJ-64007957) Direct Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to BCMA + cells [110]
CD38/CD3 GBR-1342 Direct Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to CD38 + cells [98]
CD38/CD3 AMG-424 Direct Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to CD38 + cells [104]
FcRH5-CD3 Cevostamab-BFCR4350A Direct Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to FcRH5 expressing cells [112]
GPRC5D-CD3 talquetamab-JNJ-64407564 Direct Cytotoxicity induction by accumulating T-cells to GPRC5D presenting cells [113]
  1. Antibody-dependent cellular toxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent toxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), Signaling lymphocytic molecule F7 (SLAMF7), B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA), Fc Receptor H5 (FcH5), G-protein Receptor Coupled 5D (GPRC5D)