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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with OS in the primary cohort

From: A novel staging system and clinical predictive nomogram for more accurate staging and prognosis of malignant pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: a population-based study

Variable Variable levels Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR 95% CI p-value HR 95% CI p-value
Age < 70 Reference    Reference   
≥ 70 1.37 1.21–1.56 < 0.001*** 1.49 1.30–1.70 < 0.001***
Sex Female Reference      
Male 0.93 0.82–1.05 0.252    
Race Black Reference    Reference   
White 0.87 0.71–1.06 0.163 1.1 0.9–1.36 0.355
Others 0.59 0.44–0.78 < 0.001*** 0.78 0.58–1.05 0.099
Marriage Others Reference    Reference   
Married 0.82 0.72–0.94 0.003** 0.98 0.86–1.13 0.801
Location Head Reference    Reference   
Body or tail 1.70 1.47–1.96 < 0.001*** 1.22 1.04–1.43 0.014*
Others 1.24 1.04–1.48 0.015* 1.11 0.93–1.33 0.256
Grade Others Reference    Reference   
High 1.38 1.16–1.64 < 0.001*** 1.59 1.32–1.91 < 0.001***
ELN < 15 Reference    Reference   
≥ 15 0.51 0.43–0.59  < 0.001*** 0.93 0.78–1.13 0.479
Extend Inside Reference    Reference   
Beyond 2.26 1.97–2.58 < 0.001*** 1.14 0.97–1.35 0.122
Surgery Yes Reference    Reference   
No 5.14 4.48–5.90 < 0.001*** 3.6 2.88–4.49 < 0.001***
Chemotherapy Yes Reference    Reference   
No/unknown 0.79 0.69–0.89 < 0.001*** 2.04 1.77–2.36 < 0.001***
Radiotherapy Yes Reference      
No/unknown 0.98 0.84–1.14 0.690    
T8th Tis Reference    Reference   
T1a 1.4 0.74–2.66 0.301 1.68 0.88–3.2 0.115
T1b 1.93 0.91–4.11 0.088 2.58 1.21–5.52 0.014*
T1c 4.16 2.86–6.05 < 0.001*** 3.93 2.66–5.79 < 0.001***
T2 6.59 4.78–9.09 < 0.001*** 5.13 3.62–7.27 < 0.001***
T3 6.7 4.86–9.23 < 0.001*** 5.19 3.68–7.33  < 0.001***
T4 12.99 9.34–18.08 < 0.001*** 6.16 4.18–9.07 < 0.001***
N8th N0 Reference    Reference   
N1 1.21 1.02–1.43 0.026* 1.55 1.28–1.88 < 0.001***
N2 1.47 1.17–1.83 < 0.001*** 2.94 2.25–3.84 < 0.001***
M8th M0 Reference    Reference   
M1 5.58 4.84–6.42 < 0.001*** 2.35 1.94–2.87 < 0.001***
  1. p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001