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Table 1 Clinical manifestation summary of pulmonary fibrosis induced by viruses

From: Virus infection induced pulmonary fibrosis

Virus Clinical manifestation Assessment of fibrosis Reversibility of pulmonary fibrosis References
Human T-cell leukemia virus ATL, leukemic cell infiltration, pulmonary fibrosis CT showed ground glass opacities, bronchiectasis, centrilobular nodules, septal thickening, honeycombing and crazy-paving, suggesting the presence of pulmonary fibrosis No mention Assessment:[4]; reversibility: None
Human immunodeficiency virus Interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis HRCT demonstrated areas of ground glass opacification, consolidation and honeycombing, with interstitial infiltrate as the histopathologic feature No mention Assessment:[10]; reversibility: None
Cytomegalovirus Interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis HRCT demonstrated bilateral mixed areas of ground-glass opacity, poorly-defined centrilobular small nodules, and consolidation No mention Assessment:[22]; reversibility: None
Epstein–Barr virus Unspecific interstitial lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis The open-lung biopsy showed uncharacteristic focal interstitial peribronchial infiltration in the left lower lobe, with histiocytes and lymphocytes as well as interstitial fibrosis and increased collagen tissue Reversible: After 26 months, chest X-ray showed only slight interstitial markings Assessment:[29]; reversibility: [29]
Influenza virus ARDS, DAD bronchoalveolar pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis Histologic features included bronchoalveolar pneumonia, interstitial septal thickening, type II pneumonocyte hyperplasia, fibrosis and squamous metaplasia. HRCT demonstrated ground glass opacity and consolidation Reversible: The one month follow-up CT scans showed that the fibrosis resolved Assessment:[36, 37]; reversibility: [37]
Avian influenza virus ARDS, lymphopenia, pulmonary fibrosis CT findings in H5N1 and H7N9 patients were ground-glass opacities and lobar consolidation Reversible: The 12th month follow-up CT of patient showed only minimal residual fibrous lines Assessment:[44, 46]; reversibility: [44]
MERS-CoV ARDS, multi-lobar airspace disease, pulmonary fibrosis CT showed multi-lobar airspace disease, ground-glass opacities and pleural effusions No mention Assessment:[57]; reversibility: none
SARS-CoV ARDS, DAD, pulmonary fibrosis The histopathological findings were extensive edema, hyaline membrane formation, alveolar collapse, and alveolar epithelial desquamation. CT showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation Reversible: HRCT scan showed improvement of pulmonary fibrosis in one month Assessment:[67, 68, 71]; reversibility: [69, 72]
SARS-CoV-2 ARDS, DAD, pulmonary fibrosis Histopathological examination of the lung biopsy tissues revealed bilateral acute changes with DAD, reactive type II pneumocyte and macrophage hyperplasia, patchy inflammatory cellular infiltration and loose interstitial fibrosis Reversible: Thin-section chest CT showed that pulmonary fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could reverse in about a third of the patients 120 days after the onset Assessment:[88]; reversibility: [86]