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Table 1 Distribution of the demographic data and comorbidities of the study participants

From: Long-term exposure to air pollution and the risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss

Covariates SSNHL
(n = 353)
Non- SSNHL (n = 63,968) p Total
(n = 64,321)
Age
 Mean (SD) 45.58 (15.36) 39.12 (14.99)  < 0.001 39.16 (15.00)
Follow years
 Mean (SD) 8.47 (2.49) 11.71 (0.91) < 0.001 11.69 (0.96)
HT 161 45.6% 19,464 30.4% < 0.001 19,625 30.5
DM 61 17.3% 7023 11.0% < 0.001 7084 11.0
Stroke 19 5.4% 2586 4.0% 0.255 2605 4.0
Head injury 27 7.6% 5237 8.2% 0.787 5264 8.2
CKD 10 2.8% 1584 2.5% 0.796 1594 2.5
IHD 97 27.5% 10,776 16.8% < 0.001 10,873 16.9
Alcoholism 7 2.0% 975 1.5% 0.629 982 1.5
Nicotine 5 1.4% 1814 2.8% 0.149 1819 2.8
Asthma 50 14.2% 7581 11.9% 0.208 7631 11.9
COPD 104 29.5% 13,997 21.9% 0.001 14,101 21.9
RA 1 0.3% 191 0.3% 1.000 192 0.3
IC 44 12.5% 3466 5.4% < 0.001 3510 5.5%
SUOM 41 11.6% 3651 5.7% < 0.001 3692 5.7%
CSOM 2 0.6% 196 0.3% 0.296 198 0.3%
Otosclerosis 0 0 14 0.02% 1.000 14 0.02%
Insurance fee
 Lowest 59 16.7% 10,633 16.6% 0.316 10,692 16.6
 2nd 102 28.9% 20,987 32.8%   21,089 32.8
 3rd 91 25.8% 14,280 22.3%   14,371 22.3
 Highest 101 28.6% 18,068 28.2%   18,169 28.2
Urbanization
 Highly 108 30.6% 21,946 34.3% 0.002 22,054 34.3
 Moderately 138 39.1% 20,837 32.6%   20,975 32.6
 Boomtown 40 11.3% 10,856 17.0%   10,896 16.9
 Others 67 19.0% 10,329 16.1%   10,396 16.2
  1. HT: hypertension; DM: diabetes mellitus; CKD: chronic kidney disease; IHD: ischemic heart disease; Nicotine: nicotine dependence; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; IC: impacted cerumen; SUOM: suppurative and unspecified otitis media; CSOM: chronic serous otitis media