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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and levels of SphK-related sphingolipids in the control and incident T2DM groups

From: Identification of circulating sphingosine kinase-related metabolites for prediction of type 2 diabetes

Characteristic Control
(n = 100)
Incident T2DM
(n = 100)
P value
Men, n (%) 41 (41%) 41 (41%) 0.999
Age, years 62.4 (56.8–70.0) 62.2 (56.1–67.6) 0.729
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.7 ± 2.5 24.5 ± 2.8 0.744
Waist circumference, cm 85.1 ± 8.5 84.8 ± 9.3 0.809
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.89 (4.44–5.51) 5.32 (4.70–5.89) 0.010
LDL (mmol/L) 2.86 ± 0.80 3.03 ± 0.73 0.121
HDL (mmol/L) 1.33 (1.20–1.61) 1.32 (1.17–1.51) 0.743
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.41 (1.07–1.96) 1.54 (1.15–2.23) 0.409
Fasting plasm glucose (mmol/L) 5.10 (4.85–5.30) 5.10 (4.90–5.50) 0.303
OGTT 2 h-plasm glucose (mmol/L) 7.30 (5.85–8.70) 7.40 (6.30–8.80) 0.213
Insulin (μU/mL) 8.00 (5.77–10.75) 8.30 (5.97–10.97) 0.777
HOMA-IR 1.90 (1.34–2.44) 1.92 (1.35–2.44) 0.714
Uric acid (μmol/L) 315.0 (265.0–356.0) 315.5 (267.0–373.8) 0.788
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 28 (28%) 27 (27%) 0.874
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.8 ± 15.5 138.5 ± 18.1 0.052
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.1 ± 10.1 78.8 ± 10.0 0.231
Sphingolipids (nmol/L)    
 Sph 12.7 (9.58–17.6) 14.2 (10.5–20.0) 0.116
 S1P 818.0 (724.0–919.0) 844.0 (763.0–958.0) 0.151
 S1P/Sph 58.2 (46.8–82.3) 55.2 (43.0–72.2) 0.489
 dhSph 3.09 (2.25–4.18) 2.95 (2.29–3.63) 0.281
 dhS1P 132.0 (109.5–163.3) 153.0 (128.0–189.2) 0.002
 dhS1P/dhSph 42.2 (34.0–52.6) 50.7 (44.0–64.7)  < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, except for skewed variables, which are presented as the median with the interquartile range given in parentheses
  2. HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance