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Fig. 2 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Monitoring the tissue perfusion during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation: tissue-to-arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure gradient in a pig model

Fig. 2

Changes in hemodynamic parameters during hemorrhage shock and resuscitation. A Blood withdrawal induced the increments in transcutaneous partial pressure monitoring of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Friedman test, P = 0.0002), and the decrements in cardiac outputs measured by pulmonary artery thermodilution (Friedman test, P < 0.0001) and by transpulmonary thermodilution (Repeated-Measure [RM] ANOVA, F = 31.2, P = 0.0006). These alterations were recovered by blood transfusions. B Blood withdrawal induced the decrements in stroke volumes measured by pulmonary artery thermodilution (RM ANOVA, F = 18.41, P < 0.0001) and by transpulmonary thermodilution (RM ANOVA, F = 52.14, P < 0.0001). These alterations were recovered by blood transfusions. C Blood withdrawal induced the increments in heart rate (RM ANOVA, F = 4.24, P = 0.047), and the decrement in mean arterial pressure (RM ANOVA, F = 24.2, P < 0.0001). These alterations were recovered by blood transfusions. D Blood withdrawal and transfusions affected shock index (RM ANOVA, F = 13.76, P = 0.007), but not perfusion index (Friedman test, P = 0.264). Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean. *P < 0.05, P < 0.01 vs. baseline. BL, baseline; BW10, 10 mL/kg of blood withdrawal; BW20, 20 mL/kg of blood withdrawal; BW30, 30 mL/kg of blood withdrawal; BT10, 10 mL/kg of blood transfusion; BT20, 20 mL/kg of blood transfusion; BT30, 30 mL/kg of blood transfusion; tcPCO2, transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide; COPATD, cardiac output measured by pulmonary artery thermodilution; COTPTD, cardiac output measured by transpulmonary thermodilution; SVPATD, stroke volume measured by pulmonary artery thermodilution; SVTPTD, stroke volume measured by transpulmonary thermodilution; MAP, mean arterial pressure; HR, heart rate.

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