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Table 1 Targeting Tfh cell signalling and costimulatory pathways: Current clinical trials

From: TFH cells in systemic sclerosis

Target Drug NCT number (status) Design Primary end-point
JAK/STAT signalling pathway Belumosudil
[55, 56]
03919799
(recruiting)
Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled study Combined Response Index in Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (CRISS) at Week 24
04680975
(recruiting)
Phase II, Open label, Multicenter Study CRISS at Week 24
Itacitinib
[59]
04789850
(Not yet
recruiting)
Phase II, Randomized, Quadruple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) at 360 days
B cells Belimumab and rituximab
combination
therapy (75)
03844061
(recruiting)
Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Change in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) CRISS at 12 months and the proportion of participants who experience at least one Grade 3 or higher adverse event at or before 12 months