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Table 3 Comparisons of vlPAG functional connectivity change produced by 1 Hz and 20 Hz taVNS

From: Different modulation effects of 1 Hz and 20 Hz transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in patients with migraine

Comparisons Brain Regions Cluster size Peak T MNI coordinates
x y z
1 Hz > 20 Hz MCC 225 5.37 − 6 − 12 40
PCu/PCC 216 4.74 4 − 48 46
*INS 148 5.35 − 44 − 6 − 6
*ACC 45 3.50 − 4 42 18
20 Hz > 1 Hz No regions survive the threshold
  1. Change presented in continuous taVNS minus pre-taVNS resting-state. “*” identified results significant at cluster p < 0.05 after 3dFWHMx and 3dClustSim correction. Other results were significant at cluster pFDR < 0.05 corrected at the whole brain level
  2. vlPAG ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, MCC middle cingulate cortex, PCu precuneus, PCC posterior cingulate cortex, INS insula, ACC anterior cingulate cortex